design for manufacture

Design for Manufacture (DFM)

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The Importance of Design for Manufacture (DFM), Design for Manufacture and Assembly (DFMA) and Statistical Process Control (SPC) to Manufacturing Processes

Design for manufacture (DFM) is the practice of designing products keeping manufacturing in mind in order to reduce the cost required to manufacture a product and improve the ease with which the product can be made. Design for manufacture is a common approach to the production of goods that integrates the product design process with selection of materials, consideration of manufacturing methods, process improvement, assembly, testing and quality assurance. The impact of design modifications on manufacturing process selection, tools and dies, assembly, inspection and product cost must be thoroughly assessed by both designers and product engineers. In order to optimize the design for ease of manufacturing and assembly at minimum cost, establishment of quantitative relationships is very essential. [1, 2] Nowadays products are becoming more complex and of high quality in order to satisfy customer’s needs, manufactured in mass quantity and competition between similar products is growing rapidly. In the current scenario, the design of any commercial product is a compromise between conflicting goals. The common and most important conflict is between the cost of consumer’s requirements, what the customer is willing to pay and the cost of competitive products. It is through DFM an optimal product in terms of price, quality and at minimum cost is produced.

After individual parts have been manufactured, they are assembled into a product. Assembly is an important phase of the overall manufacturing operation and requires consideration of the ease, speed and cost of putting parts together. Also the products produced must be easily disassembled for maintenance, servicing or recycling. For this purpose, design for manufacture and design for assembly are combined into more comprehensive approach called design for manufacture and assembly (DFMA) which recognizes the inherent and important interrelationships among design, manufacturing and assembly. DFMA is a well established technique in optimizing the total product from the standpoint of assembly, part design and total life cycle cost as well as for accomplishing significant improvements of products through application of following set of generic rules:

  • Minimize part count
  • Create modular Assemblies
  • Design for efficient joining
  • Minimize fasteners, cables and reorientation at assembly
  • Standardize parts and Materials
  • Use self fastening and self-locating parts
  • Accommodate process/ part variations
  • Simplify and reduce number of Manufacturing operations
  • Maximize compliance
  • Design parts to be multi-functional

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