Finite Element Analysis FEA Terms and Definitions (A to Z) Part-6 (Final)

Finite Element Analysis FEA Terms and Definitions (A to Z) Part-5

(A to Z) of Finite Element Analysis



A plot showing contour lines connecting points of equal temperature.
A three dimensional four sided solid element with triangular faces.
The material property defining the thermal inertia of a material. It relates the rate of change of temperature with time to heat flux.
The material property relating temperature gradient to heat flux.
The equivalent loads on a structure arising from thermal strains. These in turn arise from a temperature change.
The components of strain arising from a change in temperature.
The computation of stresses and displacements due to change in temperature.
In a shell element the geometry is very much thinner in one direction than the other two. It can then be assumed stresses can only vary linearly at most in the thickness direction. If the through thickness shear strains can be taken as zero then a thin shell model is formed. This uses the Kirchoff shell theory If the transverse shear strains are not ignored then a thick shell model is formed. This uses the Mindlin shell theory. For the finite element method the thick shell theory generates the most reliable form of shell elements. There are two forms of such elements, the Mindlin shell and the Semi -Loof shell.
The structures forcing function and the consequent response is defined in terms of time histories. The Fourier transform of the time domain gives the corresponding quantity in the frequency domain.
The sum of the leading diagonal terms of the matrix.
A systematic method for generating element shape functions for irregular node distributions on an element.
Solution techniques that transform coordinate and force systems to generate a simpler form of solution. The eigenvectors can be used to transform coupled dynamic equations to a series of single degree of freedom equations.
A forcing function that varies for a short period of time and then settles to a constant value.
The component of the system response that does not repeat itself regularly with time.
Special elements that have sides with different numbers of nodes. They are used to couple elements with different orders of interpolation, typically a transition element with two nodes on one edge and three on another is used to couple a 4 -node quad to an 8 -node quad.
Heat transfer problems in which temperature distribution varies as a function of time.
Two dimensional or surface elements that have three edges.
A one dimensional line element defined by two nodes resisting only axial loads.



The failure stress (or equivalent stress) for the material.
The square root of the ratio of the stiffness to the mass (the square root of the eigenvalue). It is the frequency at which an undamped system vibrates naturally. A system with n degrees of freedom has n natural frequencies.
A system which has an equation of motion where the damping is less than critical. It has an oscillatory impulse response.
A diagonal matrix with unit values down the diagonal.
The updated Lagrangian coordinate system is one where the stress directions are referred to the last known equilibrium state. The total Lagrangian coordinate system is one where the stress directions are referred to the initial geometry.
A special form of weighting function used in viscous flow problems (solution to the NavierStokes equations) used in the weighted residual method to bias the results in the direction of the flow.




A sparse matrix where the bandwidth is not constant. Some times called a skyline matrix.
The first time derivative of the displacement.
A technique for calculating the energy that would be released if a crack increased in size. This gives the energy release rate which can be compared to the critical energy release (a material property) to decide if a crack will propagate.
An arbitrary imaginary change of the system configuration consistent with its constraints.
Techniques for using work arguments to establish equilibrium equations from compatibility equations (virtual displacements) and to establish compatibility equations from equilibrium (virtual forces).
The damping is viscous when the damping force is proportional to the velocity.
The matrix relating a set of velocities to their corresponding velocities
The distortion measured by the determinant of the Jacobian matrix, det j.
An “averaged” stress value calculated by adding the squares of the 3 component stresses (X, Y and Z directions) and taking the square root of their sums. This value allows for a quick method to locate probable problem areas with one plot.
Equivalent stress measures to represent the maximum shear stress in a material. These are used to characterize flow failures (e.g. plasticity and creep). From test results the VonMises form seems more accurate but the Tresca form is easier to handle.



The dynamic calculation involving the prediction of the history of stress and pressure waves in solids and fluids.
The wavefront of a symmetric matrix is the maximum number of active nodes at any time during a frontal solution process. It is a measure of the time required to factorise the equations in a frontal solution. It is minimized be element renumbering.
A technique for transforming a set of partial differential equations to a set of simultaneous equations so that the solution to the simultaneous equations satisfy the partial differential equations in a mean sense. The form used in the finite element method is the Galerkin process. This leads to identical equations to those from virtual work arguments.
The stability of rotating systems where centrifugal and Coriolis are also present.
White noise has a constant spectral density for all frequencies.
An implicit solution method for integrating second order equations of motion. It can be made unconditionally stable.
Within a digital computer a number is only held to a finite number of significant figures. A 32bit (single precision) word has about 7 significant figures. A 64bit (double precision) word has about 13 significant figures. All finite element calculations should be conducted in double precision.



The material property relating a uniaxial stress to the corresponding strain.



Non-zero patterns of displacements that have no energy associated with them. No forces are required to generate such modes, Rigid body motions are zero energy modes. Buckling modes at their buckling loads are zero energy modes. If the elements are not fully integrated they will have zero energy displacement modes. If a structure has one or more zero energy modes then the matrix is singular.




Finite Element Analysis FEA Terms and Definitions (A to Z) Part-5

Finite Element Analysis FEA Terms and Definitions (A to Z) Part-4

(A to Z) of Finite Element Analysis



The minimum number of Gauss points required to integrate an element matrix. Also the Gauss points at which the stresses are most accurate (see reduced Gauss points).
A system which has an equation of motion where the damping is greater than critical. It has an exponentially decaying, non-oscillatory impulse response.
Lower bound solutions. These are associated with the assumed displacement method.


Initial studies conducted on small -simplified models to determine the important parameters in the solution of a problem. These are often used to determine the basic mesh density required.
The fraction of the mass that is active for a given mode with a given distribution of dynamic loads. Often this is only defined for the specific load case of inertia (seismic) loads.

A test to prove that a mesh of distorted elements can represent constant stress situations and strain free rigid body motions (i.e. the mesh convergence requirements) exactly.
A response (force) that regularly repeats itself exactly.
The ratio of the in phase component of a signal to its out of phase component gives the tangent of the phase angle of the signal relative to some reference.
A two dimensional analysis is plane stress if the stress in the third direction is assumed zero. This is valid if the dimension of the body in this direction is very small, e.g. a thin plate. A two dimensional analysis is plane strain if the strain in the third direction is assumed zero. This is valid if the dimension of the body in this direction is very large, e.g. a cross- sectional slice of a long body.
Two-dimensional shell elements where the in plane behavior of the element is ignored. Only the out of plane bending is considered.
The material property in Hooke s law relating strain in one direction arising from a stress in a perpendicular direction to this.
Checks that can be made on the results after the analysis. For a stress analysis these could include how well stress free boundary conditions have been satisfied or how continuous stresses are across elements.
The interrogation of the results after the analysis phase. This is usually done with a combination of graphics and numerics.

The energy associated with the static behavior of a system. For a structure this is the strain energy.
Fluid flow problems where the flow can be represented by a scalar potential function.
A method for finding the lowest or the highest eigenvalue of a system.
The equations relating an increment of stress to an increment of plastic strain for a metal undergoing plastic flow.
The process of preparing finite element input data involving model creation, mesh generation,material definition, and load and boundary condition application.

Those parts of the structure that are of direct interest for the analysis. Other parts are secondary components.
The maximum and minimum radii of curvature at a point.
The maximum direct stress values at a point. They are the eigenvalues of the stress tensor.
The profile of a symmetric matrix is the sum of the number of terms in the lower (or upper) triangle of the matrix ignoring the leading zeros in each row. Embedded zeros are included in the count. It gives a measure of the work required to factorize the matrix when using the Cholesky solution. Node renumbering minimizes it.
A damping matrix that is a linear combination of the mass and stiffness matrices. The eigenvectors of a proportionally damped system are identical to those of the undamped system.
A method of finite element analysis that uses P- convergence to iteratively minimize the error of analysis.
A technique for finding eigenvalues. This is currently the most stable method for finding eigenvalues but it is restricted in the size of problem that it can solve.
The applied loading is only known in terms of its statistical properties. The loading is nondeterministic in that its value is not known exactly at any time but its mean, mean square, variance and other statistical quantities are known.


A measure of how singular a matrix is.
Damping that is proportional to a linear combination of the stiffness and mass. This assumption has no physical basis but it is mathematically convenient to approximate low damping in this way when exact damping values are not known.
The ratio of stiffness times displacement squared (2*strain energy) to mass times
displacement squared. The minimum values of the Rayleigh quotient are the eigenvalues.
The forces generated at support points when a structure is loaded.
The reference temperature defines the temperature at which strain in the design does not
result from thermal expansion or contraction. For many situations, reference temperature
is adequately defined as room temperature. Define reference te mperature in the
properties of an environment.

The ratio of the steady state displacement response to the value of the forcing function for
a sinusoidal excitation. It is the same as the dynamic flexibility.
If an element requires an l*m*n Gauss rule to integrate the element matrix exactly then (l-1)*(m-1)*(n-1) is the reduced integration rule. For many elements the stresses are most
accurate at the reduced integration points. For some elements the matrices are best
evaluated by use of the reduced integration points. Use of reduced integration for
integrating the elements can lead to zero energy and hour glassing modes.
A method for characterizing a dynamic transient forcing function and the associated
solution technique. It is used for seismic and shock type loads.
The process whereby an analysis can be stopped part way through and the analysis restarted at a later time.
A non-zero displacement pattern that h as zero strain energy associate with it.
A non-zero displacement pattern that has zero strain energy associate with it.
If a displaced shape does not give rise to any strain energy in the structure then this a rigid body mode. A general three-dimensional unsupported structure has 6 rigid body modes, 3 translation and 3 rotation.
This is a connection between two non-coincident nodes assuming that the connection is infinitely stiff. This allows the degrees of freedom at one of the nodes (the slave node) to be deleted from the system. It is a form of multi-point constraint.
Computers have a fixed word length and hence only hold numbers to a certain number of significant figures. If two close numbers are subtracted one from another then the result loses the first set of significant figures and hence loses accuracy. This is round off error.
A 1xn matrix written as a horizontal string of numbers. It is the transpose of a column vector.


Quantities that have no direction associated with them, e.g. temperatures. Scalar problems only have one degree of freedom at a node. Vector quantities have a direction associated with them, e.g. displacements. Vector problems have more than one degree of freedom at a node.
The stiffness defined by the slope of the line from the origin to the current point of interest on a load/deflection curve.

Components of a structure not of direct interest but they may have some influence of the behavior of the part of the structure that is of interest (the primary component) and have to be included in the analysis in some approximate form.
Flows in porous materials
The calculation of the dynamic displacement and stress response arising from earthquake excitations.
A form of Gaussian quadrature where different sets of Gauss points are used for different strain components.
A form of matrix products that preserves symmetry of equations. The product A*B*A(transpose) is self -adjoint if the matrix B is symmetric. The result of the product will be symmetric for any form of A that is of a size compatible with B. This form o f equation occurs regularly within the finite element method. Typically it means that for a structural analysis the stiffness (and mass) matrices for any element or element assembly will be
A load set is self -equilibrating if all of its resultants are zero. Both translation and moment resultants are zero.
A form of thick shell element.
If a structure is loaded cyclically and initially undergoes some plastic deformation then it is said to shakedown if the behavior is entirely elastic after a small number of load cycles.
A method for numerically integrating a function.
A method for finding the first few eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a finite element system. This is also known as subspace vector iteration.
The system is defined by a single force/displacement equation.
Where the constraint is unique to a single node point.
A square matrix that cannot be inverted.
A measure of the angular distortion arising between two vectors that are at right angles in the basis space when these are mapped to the real coordinate space. If this angle approaches zero the element becomes ill-conditioned.

Three dimensional continuum elements.
Messages that are generated as the finite element solution progresses. These should always be checked for relevance but the are often only provided for information purposes
A comparative measure between two solutions of a given problem defining which is the ‘best’. The measures can include accuracy, time of solution, memory requirements and disc storage space.
Solution methods that exploit the sparse nature of finite element equations. Such methods include the frontal solution and Cholesky (skyline) factorization for direct solutions, conjugate gradient methods for iterative solutions and the Lanczos method and subspace iteration (simultaneous vector iteration) for eigenvalue solutions.
The Fourier transform of the correlation function. In random vibrations it gives a measure of the significant frequency content in a system. White noise has a constant spectral density for all frequencies.
A curve fitting technique that preserves zero, first and second derivative continuity across segment boundaries.
Cracks that appear in a mesh when the elements are not correctly connected together. This is usually an error in the mesh generation process.
Analysis of stresses and displacements in a structure when the applied loads do not vary with time.
A structure where all of the unknowns can be found from equilibrium considerations alone.
Equivalent nodal loads that have the same equilibrium resultants as the applied loads but do not necessarily do the same work as the applied loads.
A structure where all of the unknowns can not be found from equilibrium considerations alone. The compatibility equations must also be used. In this case the structure is said to be redundant.
A force or response that is random but its statistical characteristics do not vary with time.
Determination of the temperature distribution of a mechanical part having reached thermal equilibrium with the environmental conditions. There are no time varying changes in the resulting temperatures.

The response of the system to a periodic forcing function when all of the transient components of the response have become insignificant.
Methods of numerically integrating time varying equations of motion. These methods can be either explicit or implicit.
A set of values which represent the rigidity or softness of a particular element. Stiffness is determined by material type and geometry.
The parameter(s) that relate the displacement(s) to the force(s). For a discrete parameter multi degree of freedom model this is usually given as a stiffness matrix.
A dimensionless quantity calculated as the ratio of deformation to the original size of the body.
The energy stored in the system by the stiffness when it is displaced from its equilibrium position.
The intensity of internal forces in a body (force per unit area) acting on a plane within the material of the body is called the stress on that plane.
The computation of stresses and displacements due to applied loads. The analysis may be elastic, inelastic, time dependent or dynamic.
The process of filtering the raw finite element stress results to obtain the most realistic estimates of the true state of stress.
A local area of the structure where the stresses are significantly higher than the general stress level. A fine mesh of elements is required in such regions if accurate estimates of the stress concentration values are required.
A plot of a stress component by a series of color filled contours representing regions of equal stress.
Lines along which the stresses are discontinuous. If the geometry or loading changes abruptly along a line then the true stress can be discontinuous. In a finite element solution the element assumptions means that the stresses will generally be discontinuous across element boundaries. The degree of discontinuity can then be used to form an estimate of the error in the stress within the finite element calculation.
The process of taking the stress results at the optimum sampling points for an element and extrapolating these to the element node points.

A measure of the importance of the stress at a sharp crack tip (where the actual stress values will be infinite) used to estimate if the crack will propagate.

The stress (strain) vector is the components of stress (strain) written as a column vector. For a general three dimensional body this is a (6×1) matrix. The components of stress (strain) written in tensor form. For a general three dimensional body this forms a (3×3) matrix with the direct terms down the diagonal and the shear terms as the off-diagonals.
The material property behavior relating stress to strain. For a linear behavior this is Hookes law (linear elasticity). For elastic plastic behavior it is a combination of Hookes law and the Prandtl-Reuss equations.
A method for finding the first few eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a finite element system. This is also known as simultaneous vector iteration.
An efficient way of solving large finite element analysis problems by breaking the model into several parts or substructures, analyzing each one individually, and then combining them for the final results.
Substructuring is a form of equation solution method where the structure is split into a series of smaller structures -the substructures. These are solved to eliminate the internal freedoms and the complete problem solved by only assembling the freedoms on the common boundaries between the substructures. The intermediate solution where the internal freedoms of a substructure have been eliminated gives the super element matrix
for the substructure.
The geometric modeling technique in which the model is created in terms of its surfaces only without any volume definition.



Finite Element Analysis FEA Terms and Definitions (A to Z) Part-6 (Final)


Revit MEP- State of the Art BIM Software


Autodesk Revit MEP is a building information modeling (BIM) software created by Autodesk for professionals who engage in MEP engineering. MEP stands for mechanical, electrical, and plumbing, which are the three engineering disciplines that Revit MEP addresses. By utilizing BIM as opposed to computer-aided drafting (CAD), Revit MEP is able to leverage dynamic information in intelligent models — allowing complex building systems to be accurately designed and documented in a shorter amount of time. Each intelligent model created with Revit MEP represents an entire project and is stored in a single database file. This allows changes made in one part of the model to be automatically propagated to other parts of the model, thus enhancing the workflow for Revit MEP users.

[Source: EduLearn]



Autodesk® Revit® MEP software helps mechanical, electrical, and plumbing engineering firms meet the heightened demands of today’s global marketplace.

Revit MEP- State of the Art BIM Software

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BIM for Mechanical, Electrical, and Plumbing Engineers

Autodesk® Revit® MEP software is the building information modeling (BIM) solution for mechanical, electrical, and plumbing (MEP) engineers, providing purpose-built tools for building systems design and analysis. With
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Building Systems Modeling and Layout

Revit MEP software’s modeling and layout tools enable engineers to create mechanical, electrical, and plumbing systems more accurately and easily. Automatic routing solutions enable users to model the ductwork, plumbing, and piping systems, or manually lay out lighting and power systems. Revit MEP software’s parametric change technology
means that any change to the MEP model is automatically coordinated throughout the model. Maintaining a single, consistent model of the building helps to keep drawings coordinated and reduce errors.


Things You can do with Autodesk Revit MEP


Things You can do with Autodesk Revit MEP


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Things You can do with Autodesk Revit MEP









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Formula 1 Cars Evolution, Design and Components

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Fundamentally, Formula One cars are no different than the Chevy parked out in your garage. They use internal combustion engines and have transmissions, suspensions, wheels and brakes. But that’s where the similarity ends. Formula One cars aren’t designed for casual driving or cruising down the interstate. Everything about them is tweaked and tooled for one thing and one thing only — speed. Formula One cars can easily attain speeds of 200 mph — but during a race, the speeds are generally lower. During the 2006 Hungarian Grand Prix, the winner’s average speed was 101.769 mph, and in the 2006 Italian Grand Prix, it was 152.749 mph.

A Formula One car is an open-wheel, open-cockpit, single-seat racing car for the purpose of being used in Formula One competitions. It is equipped with two wings (front and rear) plus an engine, which is located behind the driver.

Formula 1 Cars Evolution, Design and Components


Every F1 car is composed of two main components − the chassis and the engine.

Chassis − Formula One cars these days are made from carbon fiber and ultra-lightweight components. The weight must be not less than 702 kg or 1548 lbs, including the driver and tires, but excluding the fuel.

The dimensions of a Formula One car must be maximum 180 cm (width) × 95cm (height); there is no specified number for maximum length, but all cars tend to be of almost the same length.

The heart of a Formula One car is the chassis — the part of the automobile onto which everything is bolted and attached. Like most modern cars and aircraft, Formula One race cars feature Monocoque construction. Monocoque is a French word meaning “single shell,” which refers to the process of making the entire body out of a single piece of material. Once upon a time, that material was aluminum, but today it’s a strong composite, like spun carbon fibers set in resin or carbon fiber layered over aluminum mesh. The result is a lightweight car that can withstand the enormous downward-acting forces that are produced as the vehicle moves through the air.

The Monocoque incorporates the cockpit, a strong, padded cell that accommodates a single driver. Unlike the cockpits of road-ready cars, which can show great variance, the cockpits of Formula One cars must adhere to very rigorous technical regulations. They must, for example, meet minimum size requirements and must have a flat floor. The seat, however, is made to fit a driver’s precise measurements so his movement is limited as the car moves around the track.

Engine − According to regulation changes in 2014, all F1 cars must deploy 1.6 liter turbocharged V6 engines.

Formula 1 Cars Evolution, Design and Components

Before 2006, Formula One cars were powered by massive three-liter, V10 engines. Then the rules changed, specifying the use of 2.4-liter V8 engines. Even though power outputs fell with the rule change, Formula One engines­ can still produce nearly 900 horsepower. To put that into perspective, consider that a Volkswagen Jetta’s 2.5-liter engine produces just 150 horsepower. Of course, the Jetta’s engine is probably good for at least 100,000 miles or so. A Formula One engine needs to be rebuilt after about 500 miles. Why? Because generating all of that power requires that the engine run at very high revolution rates — nearly 19,000 revolutions per minute. Running an engine at such high rpms produces an enormous amount of heat and puts a great deal of stress on the moving parts.

Formula One Transmissions and Aerodynamics


Semi-automatic sequential carbon titanium gearboxes are used by F1 cars presently, with 8 forward gears and 1 reverse gear, with rear-wheel drive.


Formula 1 Cars Evolution, Design and Components

It’s the job of the transmission to transfer all of the engine’s power to the rear wheels of the Formula One car. The transmission bolts directly to the back of the engine and includes all of the parts you would expect to find in a road car — gearbox, differential and driveshaft. The gearbox must have a minimum of four forward gears and a maximum of seven gears. Six-speed gearboxes were popular for several years, but most Formula One cars now run seven-speed units. A reverse gear must also be fitted. The gearbox is connected to a differential, a set of gears allowing the rear wheels to revolve at different speeds during cornering. And the differential is connected to the driveshaft, which transfers power to the wheels.­

Shifting gears in a Formula One car is not the same as shifting gears in a road car with a manual transmission. Instead of using a traditional “H” gate selector, drivers select gears using paddles located just behind the steering wheel. Downshifting is done on one side of the steering wheel, upshifting on the other. Although fully automatic transmission systems, including systems with sophisticated launch control, are possible on Formula One cars, they are now illegal. This helps reduce the overall cost of the power train and enables drivers to use gear-shifting skills to gain advantage in a race.


A Formula One race car is defined as much by its aerodynamics as it is by its powerful engine. That’s because any vehicle traveling at high speed must be able to do two things well: reduce air resistance and increase downforce. Formula One cars are low and wide to decrease air resistance. Wings, a diffuser, end plates and barge boards increase downforce. Let’s look at each of these in greater detail.

  • Wings, which first appeared in the 1960s, operate on the same principles as airplane wings, only in reverse. Airplane wings create lift, but the wings on a Formula One car produce downforce, which holds the car onto the track, especially during cornering. The angle of both front and rear wings can be fine-tuned and adjusted to get the ideal balance between air resistance and downforce.
  • Lotus engineers discovered in the 1970s that a Formula One car itself could be turned into a giant wing. Using a unique undercarriage design, they were able to extract air from beneath the car, creating an area of low pressure that sucked the entire vehicle downward. These so-called “ground-effect” forces were soon outlawed and strict regulations put in place to govern undercarriage design. The bottom of today’s cars must be flat from the nose cone to the rear axle line. Beyond that line, engineers have free reign. Most incorporate a diffuser, an upward-sweeping device located just beneath the engine and gearbox that creates a suction effect as it funnels air up and passes it to the rear of the car.
  • Much of aerodynamics is concerned with getting air to move where you want it to move. Endplates are small, flanged areas at the edges of the front wings that help “grab” the air and direct it along the side of the car. The barge boards, located just behind the front wheels, pick up the air from there, accelerating it to create even more downforce.

The result of all this aerodynamics engineering is a combined downforce of about 2,500 kilograms (5,512 pounds). That’s more than four times the weight of the car itself.


he suspension of a Formula One car has all o­f the same components as the suspension of a road car. Those components include springs, dampers, arms and anti-sway bars. These cars feature multi-link suspensions, which use a multi-rod mechanism equivalent to a double-wishbone system. a double-wishbone design uses two wishbone-shaped control arms to guide each wheel’s up-and-down motion. Each arm has three mounting positions — two at the frame and one at the wheel hub — and each joint is hinged to guide the wheel’s motion. In all cars, the primary benefit of a double-wishbone suspension is control.

The geometry of the arms and the elasticity of the joints give engineers ultimate control over the angle of the wheel and other vehicle dynamics, such as lift, squat and dive. Unlike road cars, however, the shock absorbers and coil springs of a Formula One race car don’t mount directly to the control arms. Instead, they are oriented along the length of the car and are controlled remotely through a series of pushrods and bell cranks. In such an arrangement, the pushrods and bell cranks translate the up-and-down motions of the wheel to the back-and-forth movement of the spring-and-damper apparatus.

Steering Wheel

The steering wheel of an F1 car is equipped to perform many functions like changing gears, changing brake pressure, calling the radio, fuel adjustment, and so on.

The steering wheel of a Formula One car bears little resemblance to the steering wheel of a road car. As the car’s command center, it houses a dizzying array of buttons, toggles and switches. During the race, the driver can control almost every aspect of the car’s performance — gear changes, fuel mixture, brake balance and more — with just the touch of a finger. And, amazingly, all of this control comes on a steering wheel that is about half the diameter of a normal car’s steering wheel.

The rules state that the driver must be able to get out of his car within five seconds, removing nothing except the steering wheel. To allow for this, the steering wheel is joined to the steering column via a snap-on connector.


The fuel used by Formula One cars is a tightly controlled mixture of ordinary petrol, and can only contain commercial gasoline compounds rather than alcohol compounds. The fuel is not the typical unleaded gasoline you pump at the neighborhood Exxon, but it’s similar. Small quantities of non-hydrocarbon compounds are allowed, but most power-boosting additives have been banned completely. All in all, Formula One teams use about 50 different fuel blends, tuned for different tracks or conditions, in a typical season. Each blend must be submitted to the FIA, the sport’s governing body, for approval of its composition and physical properties.


Formula One cars have been using smooth thread, slick tires since 2009. The tire dimensions of an F1 car are −

  • Front Tire − 245mm (width)
  • Rear Tires − 355mm and 380mm (width)

The tires of a Formula One race car may be the most important part on the entire vehicle. This seems like an overstatement until you realize that the tires are the only things touching the track surface. That means all of the other major systems — engine, suspension and braking — do their work by way of the tires. If the tires don’t perform well, the car won’t perform well, regardless of the technical superiority demonstrated in other systems.


Like every part of a Formula One car, tires are highly regulated. Slick tires — those with no tread pattern and a high contact area — were introduced in the 1960s and used until 1998. Then the FIA change the rules to reduce cornering speeds and make the sport more competitive. On today’s Formula One cars, the front tires must be between 12 and 15 inches wide and the rear tires between 14 and 15 inches wide. Four continuous, longitudinal grooves must run around the circumference. The grooves must be at least 2.5 millimeters (0.098 inches) deep and 50 mm (1.97 inches) apart. In rainy conditions, cars can have “intermediate” and “wet” tires, which have full tread patterns designed to channel water away from the road surface.

Formula One tires are made from very soft rubber compounds which, as they heat up, adhere to the road and provide enormous gripping power. In fact, racing tires perform best at high temperatures, so they have to be warmed up before they are race-ready. The tradeoff is decreased durability. A Formula One tire is designed to last for, at most, about 125 miles.

Traction control can extend the life of tires by limiting wheel spin, especially under loads imposed by cornering. Traction control systems use electronic sensors to compare the speed of the wheel to the speed of the road the wheel is driving over. If the wheel is traveling faster than the road surface — an indication that the wheels are dangerously close to spinning — then the engine is automatically throttled back. Traction control has been allowed and banned at various times throughout modern Formula One history.


Formula One cars use disc brakes with a rotor and caliper at each tire. You would recognize all of the parts of the disc brakes found on Formula One cars. The big difference, of course, is that the brakes used in Formula One must stop a vehicle traveling at speeds greater than 200 mph. This causes the brakes to glow red-hot when they are used. To help reduce wear and tear and increase braking performance, carbon fiber discs and pads are now used. These brake systems are extremely effective at temperatures up to 750° C (1,382° F), even though they are lightweight. Holes around the edge of the brake disc allow heat to escape rapidly. The cars also have air intakes fitted to the outside of the wheel hub to cool down the brakes. The air intakes are changed for the different braking requirements of each track.

Speed and Performance

All F1 cars can accelerate from 0 to 100 mph (160 kmph) and decelerate back to 0 in under 5 seconds. F1 cars have reached top speeds of about 300 kmph or 185 mph on an average.

However, some cars, without fully complying with F1 standards have attained speed of 400 km/h or more. These numbers are mostly same for all F1 cars but slight variations may be there due to the gears and aerodynamics configuration.


Why projects fail?


Organizations perform two kinds of work: operational work and projects. Due to the repetitive nature of operational work, it is easier to systematize processes. However, because projects have finite start and end dates, are unique in nature, and involve mixed team players, they are more difficult to systematize and to develop sound methodologies and processes for.

Project Management Institute, Inc. (PMI)

There are many causes of project failure and every failed project will have its own set of issues. Sometimes it is a single trigger event that leads to failure, but more often than not, it is a complex entwined set of problems that combine and cumulatively result in failure. Generally these issues fall into two categories. Things the team did do (but did poorly) or things the team failed to do.




According to a survey carried out by the International Project Leadership Academy the following list documents 101 of the most common mistakes that lead to, or contribute to, the failure of projects:

Goal and vision

  1. Failure to understand the why behind the what results in a project delivering something that fails to meet the real needs of the organization (i.e. failure to ask or answer the question “what are we really trying to achieve?”)
  2. Failure to document the “why” into a succinct and clear vision that can be used to communicate the project’s goal to the organization and as a focal point for planning
  3. Project objectives are misaligned with the overall business goals and strategy of the organization as a whole (e.g. Sponsor has their own private agenda that is not aligned with the organization’s stated goals)
  4. Project defines its vision and goals, but the document is put on a shelf and never used as a guide for subsequent decision making
  5. Lack of coordination between multiple projects spread throughout the organization results in different projects being misaligned or potentially in conflict with each other.



Leadership and governance

  1. Failure to establish a governance structure appropriate to the needs of the project (classic mistake award winner)
  2. Appointing a Sponsor who fails to take ownership of the project seriously or who feels that the Project Manager is the only person responsible for making the project a success
  3. Appointing a Sponsor who lacks the experience, seniority, time or training to perform the role effectively
  4. Failure to establish effective leadership in one or more of the three leadership domains i.e. business, technical and organizational
  5. The Project Manager lacks the interpersonal or organizational skills to bring people together and make things happen
  6. Failure to find the right level of project oversight (e.g. either the Project Manager micromanages the project causing the team to become de-motivated or they fail to track things sufficiently closely allowing the project to run out of control).


Stakeholder engagement issues

  1. Failure to identify or engage the stakeholders (classic mistake award winner)
  2. Failing to view the project through the eyes of the stakeholders results in a failure to appreciate how the project will impact the stakeholders or how they will react to the project
  3. Imposing a solution or decision on stakeholders and failing to get their buy-in
  4. Allowing one stakeholder group to dominate the project while ignoring the needs of other less vocal groups
  5. Failure to include appropriate “change management” type activities into the scope of the project to ensure stakeholders are able to transition from old ways of working to the new ways introduced by the project
  6. Failure to establish effective communications between individuals, groups or organizations involved in the project (classic mistake award winner).



Team issues

  1. Lack of clear roles and responsibilities result in confusion, errors and omissions
  2. There are insufficient team members to complete the work that has been committed to
  3. Projects are done “off the side of the desk” (i.e. team members are expected to perform full time operational jobs while also meeting project milestones)
  4. The team lacks the Subject Matter Expertise needed to complete the project successfully
  5. Selecting the first available person to fill a role rather than waiting for the person who is best qualified
  6. Failure to provide team with appropriate training in either the technology in use, the processes the team will be using or the business domain in which the system will function
  7. Lack of feedback processes allows discontent in the team to simmer under the surface
  8. The Project Manager’s failure to address poor team dynamics or obvious non-performance of an individual team member results in the rest of the team becoming disengaged
  9. Practices that undermine team motivation
  10. Pushing a team that is already exhausted into doing even more overtime
  11. Adding more resources to an already late project causes addition strain on the leadership team resulting in even lower team performance (Brooks law).


Requirements Issues

  1. Lack of formality in the scope definition process results in vagueness and different people having different understandings of what is in and what is out of scope
  2. Vague or open ended requirements (such as requirements that end with “etc”)
  3. Failure to address excessive scope volatility or uncontrolled scope creep (classic mistake award winner)
  4. Failure to fully understand the operational context in which the product being produced needs to function once the project is over (classic mistake award winner)
  5. Requirements are defined by an intermediary without directly consulting or involving those who will eventually use the product being produced (see also lack of stakeholder engagement above)
  6. Individual requirements are never vetted against the project’s overall objectives to ensure each requirement supports the project’s objective and has a reasonable Return on Investment (ROI)
  7. The project requirements are written based on the assumption that everything will work as planned. Requirements to handle potential problems or more challenging situations that might occur are never considered
  8. Failure to broker agreement between stakeholders with differing perspectives or requirements.



  1. Those who will actually perform the work are excluded from the estimating process
  2. Estimates are arbitrarily cut in order to secure a contract or make a project more attractive
  3. Allowing a manager, sales agent or customer to bully the team into making unrealistic commitments
  4. Estimates are provided without a corresponding statement of scope
  5. Estimation is done based on insufficient information or analysis (rapid off-the-cuff estimates become firm commitments)
  6. Commitments are made to firm estimates, rather than using a range of values that encapsulate the unknowns in the estimate
  7. The assumptions used for estimating are never documented, discussed or validated
  8. Big ticket items are estimated, but because they are less visible, the smaller scale activities (the peanut list) are omitted
  9. Estimation is done without referring back to a repository of performance data culled from prior projects
  10. Failure to build in contingency to handle unknowns
  11. Assuming a new tool, process or system being used by the team will deliver instant productivity improvements.



  1. Failure to plan – diving into the performance and execution of work without first slowing down to think
  2. The underestimation of complexity (classic mistake award winner)
  3. Working under constant and excessive schedule pressure
  4. Assuming effort estimates can be directly equated to elapsed task durations without any buffers or room for non-productive time
  5. Failure to manage management or customer expectations
  6. Planning is seen as the Project Manager’s responsibility rather than a team activity
  7. Failure to break a large scale master plan into more manageable pieces that can be delivered incrementally
  8. Team commitments themselves to a schedule without first getting corresponding commitments from other groups and stakeholders who also have to commit to the schedule (aka schedule suicide)
  9. Unclear roles and responsibilities led to confusion and gaps
  10. Some team members are allowed to become overloaded resulting in degraded performance in critical areas of the project while others are underutilized
  11. Requirements are never prioritized resulting in team focusing energies on lower priority items instead of high priority work
  12. Failure to include appropriate culture change activities as part of the project plan (classic mistake award winner)
  13. Failure to provide sufficient user training when deploying the product produced by the project into its operational environment (classic mistake award winner)
  14. Failure to build training or ramp up time into the plan
  15. Change requests are handled informally without assessing their implications or agreeing to changes in schedule and budget.


Risk management

  1. Failure to think ahead and to foresee and address potential problems (Classic mistake award winner)
  2. Risk management is seen as an independent activity rather than an integral part of the planning process
  3. Risk, problems and issues become confused as a result team isn’t really doing risk management. 



Architecture and design

  1. Allowing a pet idea to become the chosen solution without considering if other solutions might better meet the project’s overall goal
  2. Teams starts developing individual components without first thinking through an overall architecture or how the different components will be integrated together. That lack of architecture then results in duplication of effort, gaps, unexpected integration costs and other inefficiencies
  3. Failure to take into account non-functional requirements when designing a product, system or process (especially performance requirements) results in a deliverable that is operationally unusable
  4. Poor architecture results in a system that is difficult to debug and maintain
  5. Being seduced into using leading edge technology where it is not needed or inappropriate
  6. Developer “gold plating” (developers implement the Rolls Royce version of a product when a Chevy was all that was needed)
  7. Trying to solve all problems with a specific tool simply because it is well understood rather than because it is well suited to the job in hand
  8. New tools are used by the project team without providing the team with adequate training or arranging for appropriate vendor support. 



Configuration and information management

  1. Failure to maintain control over document or component versions results in confusion over which is current, compatibility problems and other issues that disrupt progress
  2. Failure to put in place appropriate tools for organizing and managing information results in a loss of key information and/or a loss of control.


  1. Quality requirements are never discussed, thereby allowing different people to have different expectations of what is being produced and the standards to be achieved
  2. Failure to plan into the project appropriate reviews, tests or checkpoints at which quality can be verified
  3. Reviews of documents and design papers focus on spelling and grammar rather than on substantive issues
  4. Quality is viewed simply in terms of testing rather than a culture of working
  5. The team developing the project’s deliverables sees quality as the responsibility of the Quality Assurance group rather than a shared responsibility (the so called “throw it over the wall” mentality)
  6. Testing focuses on the simple test cases while ignore the more complex situations such as error and recovery handling when things go wrong
  7. Integration and testing of the individual components created in the project is left until all development activities are complete rather than doing ongoing incremental ingratiation and verification to find and fix problems early
  8. Testing in a test environment that is configured differently from the target production, or operational environment in which the project’s deliverables will be used.

Project tracking and management

  1. Believing that although the team is behind schedule, they will catch up later
  2. The project plan is published but there is insufficient follow up or tracking to allow issues to be surfaced and addressed early. Those failures result in delays and other knock-on problems
  3. Bad news is glossed over when presenting to customers, managers and stakeholders (aka “Green Shifting“)
  4. Dismissing information that might show that the project is running into difficulties (i.e. falling prey to the “confirmation bias”)
  5. Schedule and budget become the driving force, as a result corners are cut and quality is compromised (pressure to mark a task as complete results in quality problems remaining undetected or being ignored)
  6. Project is tracked based on large work items rather than smaller increments
  7. Failure to monitor sub-contractor or vendor performance on a regular basis
  8. Believing that a task reported by a team member as 90% done really is 90% done (note often that last 10% takes as long in calendar time as the first 90%)
  9. Believing that because a person was told something once (weeks or months ago), they will remember what they were asked to do and when they were supposed to do it (failure to put in place a system that ensures people are reminded of upcoming activities and commitments).

Decision making problems

  1. Key decisions (strategic, structural or architectural type decisions) are made by people who lack the subject matter expertise to be making the decision
  2. When making critical decisions expert advice is either ignored or simply never solicited
  3. Lack of “situational awareness” results in ineffective decisions being made
  4. Failure to bring closure to a critical decision results in wheel-spin and inaction over extended periods of time
  5. Team avoids the difficult decisions because some stakeholders maybe unhappy with the outcome
  6. Group decisions are made at the lowest common denominator rather than facilitating group decision making towards the best possible answer
  7. Key decisions are made without identifying or considering alternatives (aka “First Option Adoption“)
  8. Decision fragments are left unanswered (parts of the who, why, when, where and how components of a decision are made, but others are never finalized) resulting in confusion
  9. Failure to establish clear ownership of decisions or the process by which key decisions will be made results in indecision and confusion.




The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People

     Stephen R. Covey has based his foundation for success on the character ethic–things like integrity, humility, fidelity, temperance, courage, justice, patience, industry, simplicity, modesty, and the Golden Rule. The personality ethic–personality growth, communication skill training, and education in the field of influence strategies and positive thinking is secondary to the character ethic. What we are communicates far more eloquently than what we say or do.

      A paradigm is the way we perceive, understand and interpret the world around us. It is a difficult way of looking at people and things. To be effective we need to make a paradigm shift. Most scientific breakthroughs are the result of paradigm shifts such as Copernicus viewing the sun as the center of the universe rather than earth. Paradigm shifts are quantum changes, whether slow and deliberate or instantaneous.

     A habit is the intersection of knowledge, skill, and desire. Knowledge is what to do and the why; skill is the how to do; and desire is the motivation or want to do. In order for something to become a habit you have to have all three. The seven habits are a highly integrated approach that moves from dependency (you take care of me) to independence (I take care of myself) to interdependence (we can do something better together). The first three habits deal with independence, the essence of character growth. Habit 4, 5, and 6 deal with interdependence, teamwork, cooperation, and communication. Habit 7 is the habit of renewal.


Highly Effective People


    The 7 habits are in harmony with a natural law that covey calls the “P/PC Balance,”* where P stands for production of desired results and PC stands for production capacity, the ability or asset. For example, if you fail to maintain a lawn mower (PC) it will wear out and not be able to mow the lawn (P). you need a balance between the time spent mowing the lawn (desired result) and maintaining the lawn mower (asset). Assets can be physical, such as the lawn mower example; financial, such as the balance between principal (PC) and interest (P); and human, such as the balance between training (PC) and meeting schedule (P). You need the balance to be effective; otherwise, you will have neither a lawn mower nor a mowed lawn.

Habit 1: Be Proactive

    Being proactive means taking responsibility for your life, the ability to choose the response to a situation. Proactive behavior is a product of conscious choice based on values, rather than reactive behavior, which is based on feelings. Reactive people let circumstances, conditions, or their environment tell them how to respond. Proactive people let carefully thought-about, selected, and internalized values tell them how to respond. It’s not what happens to us but our response that differentiates the two behaviors. No one can make you miserable unless you choose to let them. The language we use is a real indicator of our behavior.


Highly Effective People

Habit 2: begin with the end in mind

     The most fundamental application of this habit is to begin each day with an image, picture, or paradigm of the end of your life as your frame of reference. Each part of your life can be examined in terms of what really matters to you, a vision of your life as a whole.

All things are created twice; there is a mental or first creation and a physical or second creation to all things. To build a house you first create a blue print and then you construct the actual house. You create a speech on paper before you give it. If you want to have a successful organization you begin with a plan that will produce appropriate end; thus leadership is the first creation, and management, the second. The leadership is doing the right things and management is doing things right.

     In order to begin with the end in mind, develop a personal philosophy or creed. Start by the considering the example items below:

  • Never compromise with honesty.
  • Remember the people involved.
  • Maintain a positive attitude.
  • Exercise daily.
  • Keep a sense of humor.
  • Do not fear mistakes.
  • Facilitate the success of subordinates.
  • Seek divine help.
  • Read a leadership book monthly.

    By centering our lives on correct principles, we create a solid foundation for the development of the life-support factors of security, guidance, wisdom, and power. Principles are fundamental truths. They are tightly interwoven threads running with exactness, consistency, beauty, and strength through the fabric of life.

Habit 3: Put first things first

     Habit 1 says, “You are the creator. You are in charge.” Habit 2 is the first creation and is based on imagination, leadership based on values. Habit 3 is practicing self-management and requires Habit 1 and Habit 2 as prerequisites. It is the day by day, moment-by-moment management of your time.

    The time management Matrix is diagrammed below. Urgent means it requires immediate attention, and important has to do with results that contribute to your mission, goals, and values. Effective, proactive people spend most of their time in Quadrant 2, thereby reducing the time in Quadrant 1. Four activities are necessary to be effective. First, write down your key roles for the week (such as research manager, United Way chairperson, and parent). Second, list your objectives for each role using many Quadrant 2 activities. These objectives should be lies to your personal goals or philosophy in Habit 2. Third, schedule time to complete the objectives. Fourth, adopt the weekly schedule to your daily activities.


Highly Effective People


Habit 4: Think Win-Win

    Win-Win is a frame of mind and heart that constantly seeks mutual benefit in all human interactions. Both sides come out ahead; in fact, the end result I usually a better way. If Win-Win is not possible, then the alternative is no deal. It takes great courage as well as consideration to create mutual benefits, especially if the other party is thinking Win-Lose.

   Win-Win embraces five interdependent dimensions of life-character, relationships, agreements, systems and processes. Character involves the trains of integrity; maturity, which is a balance between being considerate of others and the courage to express feelings; and abundance mentality, which means that there is plenty out there for everyone. Relationships mean that the two parties trust each other and are deeply committed to Win-Win. Agreements require the five elements of desired results, guidelines, resources, accountability, and consequences. Win-Win agreements can only survive in a system that supports it, you can’t talk Win-Win and reward Win-Lose. In order to obtain Win-Win, a four-step process is needed: (1) see the problem from the other viewpoint; (2) identify the key issues and concerns, (3) determine acceptable results, and (4) seek possible new options to achieve those results.

Habit 5: Seek first to understand, then to be understood

    Seek first to understand involves a paradigm shift since we usually try to be understood first.  Listening is the key to effective communication. It focuses on learning how the other person sees the world, how they feel. The essence of Emphatic Listening is not that you agree with someone; it’s that you fully, deeply understand that person, emotionally as well as intellectually. Next to physical survival the greatest need of a human being is psychological survival to be understood, to be affirmed, to be validated, to be appreciated.

     The second part of the habit is to be understood. Covey uses three sequentially arranged Greek words, ethos, pathos, and logos. Ethos is your personal credibility or character; pathos is the empathy you have with the other person’s communication; and logos is the logic or reasoning part of your presentation.

Habit 6: Synergy

      Synergy means that the whole is greater than the parts. Together, we can accomplish more than any of us can accomplish alone. This can best be exemplified by the musical group The Beatles, who as group created more music than each individual created after the group broke up. The first five habits build toward Habit 6. It focuses the concept of Win-Win and the skills of emphatic communication on tough challenges that bring about new alternatives that did not exist before. Synergy occurs when people abandon their humdrum presentations and Win-Lose mentality and open themselves up to creative cooperation. When there is a genuine understanding, people reach solutions that are better than they could have achieved acting alone.

Habit 7: Sharpen the Saw (Renewal)

     Habit 7 is taking time to Sharpen the Saw so It will cut faster. It is personal PC preserving and enhancing the greatest asset you have, which is you. It’s renewing the four dimensions of your nature physical, spiritual, mental, and social/emotional. All four dimensions of your nature must be used regularly wise and balanced ways. Regular renewing the physical dimension means following good nutrition, rest and relaxation, and regular exercise. The spiritual dimension is your commitment to your value system, renewal comes from prayer, meditation, and spiritual reading. The mental dimension is continuing to develop your intellect through reading, seminars, and writing. These three dimensions require that time be set aside, they are Quadrant 2 activities. The social and emotional dimensions of our lives are tied together because our emotional life is primarily, but not exclusively, developed out and manifested is our relationship with others. While this activity does not require time, it does require exercise.




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