Alternator vs Generator

Alternator vs Generator

Alternators and generators are two devices which generate electricity. An alternator can be called a type of generator. Although both these devices serve the same function, they are quite different in every other aspect.

An alternator is a charging system for cars that produces electricity. Generators are used in the production of large-scale electricity. Both alternators and generators convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. The main difference between them is in regard to what spins and what is fixed.

Alternator vs Generator

In an alternator, electricity is produced when a magnetic field spins inside the stator (windings of wire). In a generator, on the other hand, the armature or windings of wire spin inside a fixed magnetic field to generate electricity.

Alternators are considered more efficient than generators. Alternators conserve energy by using only the energy that is needed, while generators use all the energy that is produced. Alternators have a higher output than generators.
When it comes to polarization, alternators and generators are very different. While generators have to be polarized after installation, there is no need for polarization in alternators.

Alternator vs Generator

Alternator brushes last longer than those of generators. This is because the brushes in an alternator are used only for carrying current to power the rotor and the slip rings they ride are smooth.

There is another difference between generators and alternators when it comes to charging. An alternator will not charge a dead battery and if you do try to charge it, there is a possibility that it will burn out. A generator, however, can be used for charging a dead battery.

There is also a difference in size as alternators can fit into a small space, while generators are larger.


  • an alternator, electricity is produced when a magnetic field spins inside the stator (windings of wire). On the other hand, the armature or the windings of wire in a generator spin inside a fixed magnetic field to generate electricity.
  • Alternators conserve energy by using only the energy that is needed. Generators use all the energy that is produced.
  • Alternators produce voltage when needed and generators produce voltage at all times.
  • Alternators generate a higher output than generators.

Health & Safety in the Workplace

This guide aims to raise awareness of your legal rights and responsibilities, as an employee, so that you can enjoy a safe and healthy workplace.

Employers’ Duties

Employers have legal obligations to ensure a safe and healthy workplace for their employees in the first instance – and also for anyone else who may visit the workplace such as customers, contractors and members of the public.

All employers, whatever the size of the business, must: Health Safety

  • design, provide and maintain workplaces which are safe and without risk to health;
  • identify any hazards (actual or potential) and take measures to control the risks, preferably by eliminating them – but if that is not possible, by reducing them as far as possible;
  • ensure that safe working practices are developed and implemented,
  • implement measures to reduce the risk of bullying and harassment;
  • provide adequate first aid facilities;
  • provide employees with information, instructions, and training set up contingency plans to deal with accidents and emergencies (including the evacuation of the workplace);
  • ensure that ventilation, temperature, lighting, toilet, washing and rest facilities meet the standard of health, safety and welfare sought by the statutory bodies;
  • ensure that appropriate work equipment is provided and is properly used and regularly maintained;
  • take necessary precautions against the risks caused by flammable or explosive hazards, electrical equipment, noise, dust and radiation;
  • take reasonable steps to avoid potentially dangerous work involving manual handling and provide manual handling training where required;
  • provide health supervision, as needed;
  • provide protective clothing, where required and appropriate warning signs;
  • report specific accidents, injuries, diseases and dangerous occurrences to the appropriate authorities; and maintain records of accidents and injuries as appropriate.
Employees’ Rights & Responsibilities

The law establishes significant rights for employees – as well as responsibilities to co-operate in appropriate behavior to protect their own well-being.
The right of employees to work in a safe and healthy environment is enshrined in law. As such, it cannot be withdrawn or diluted by your employer. The most important rights and responsibilities are set out below. Health Safety

Your Rights
  • to have any risks to your health and safety properly controlled, as far as possible;
  • to be provided, free of charge, with any personal protective and safety equipment;
  • to stop work and leave your work area, if you have reasonable concerns about your safety, without being disciplined;
  • to tell your employer about any concerns about your health and safety at work;
  • to get in touch with the appropriate authority, without being disciplined, if your employer refuses to address to your concerns;
  • to be consulted by your employer about safety, health and welfare at work and to be provided with specific information on these issues; and
  • to select Safety Representatives, as part of this consultation with your employer.

Your responsibilities to take reasonable care of your health and safety; to take reasonable care not to put other people at risk;

  • to participate in appropriate training;
  • to adhere to the employer’s health and safety policies;
  • to make proper use of any personal protective equipment;
  • to report any injuries, strains or illnesses you may have suffered as a result of your work; and
  • to tell your employer of any health-related issue that may affect your work performance (for example, becoming pregnant, taking prescribed medication or suffering an injury) so that the employer can make appropriate adjustments in your working arrangements.
Common Workplace Problems
Space Health Safety

Every room where people work should have sufficient floor area, height and unoccupied space for purposes of health, safety and welfare. While additional accommodation may be necessary if there is a need for wheelchair access, generally in offices 4.65 square metres is the minimum amount of floor space required for each person working in a room (This includes the area occupied by an office desk and chair but excludes filing cabinets and other office furniture).


The regulations do not specify a maximum temperature but, as a guide, a minimum comfortable working temperature for indoor sedentary workers is reckoned to be 16º Centigrade within one hour from the start of work with the maximum comfortable working temperature at 27º Centigrade (when undertaking light duties).


Workplaces need to be adequately ventilated. Windows or other openings may provide sufficient ventilation but, where air conditioning is provided this should be regularly maintained.

Natural light

Lighting should be sufficient to enable people to work and move about safely. If necessary, local lighting should be provided at individual workstations and at places of particular risk such as corridors and stairs. Lighting and light fittings should not create any hazard. Automatic emergency lighting, powered by an independent source, should be provided where sudden loss of light would create a risk.

Workstations and breaks away from the screen

Employers must plan work at visual display units (VDUs) so that it is interrupted periodically by breaks or changes in activities to reduce exposure to the VDU. Although regulations set no required breaks, no single continuous period of work at a screen should not exceed one hour. If you use a VDU as a significant part of your daily work, you have a right to seek appropriate eye tests which must be made available and paid for by your employer.

Manual handling

Where manual handling is required, clear guidelines should be followed. For details, see the websites of the Republic’s Health and Safety Authority – – or the UK’s Health and Safety Executive –


Every workplace must have clear evacuation procedures in place and carry out regular fire drills to ensure employees are aware of the procedures.

Slips, trips and falls

The main causes of slips, trips and falls in the workplace are:

  • uneven floor surfaces;
  • unsuitable floor coverings;
  • wet floors;
  • changes in levels;
  • trailing cables;
  • poor lighting; and
  • poor housekeeping.

If you fall, seek medical assistance if required; notify your employer about the incident; ensure a report is filed if necessary; and demand that the hazard is removed.

Work-Related Stress

Workplace stress occurs when the demands of the job and/or the working environment exceeds a worker’s capacity to meet them. The symptoms of stress may be physical, mental and/or behavioural. You should familiarise yourself with your employer’s policy on stress.

Bullying and Harassment

Bullying in the workplace is a health and safety issue. It can lead to health problems and give rise to further safety issues. It is also an industrial relations matter – and may have legal consequences. Employers have a duty of care to all employees, to ensure they are both mentally and physically safe at work and that their health is not adversely affected by anything or anyone in the working environment. This duty of care means employers must behave and respond reasonably in such matters.

Please Note:

The information outlined in this document is intended for guidance only – and should not be regarded as a definitive legal statement.

Sources of information

Useful sources of information on health and safety are:

Real Time Face Detection and Tracking Robot using Arduino

Ever wanted to build a Face Tracking Robotic Arm or Robot by simply using Arduino and not any other programming like OpenCV, visual basics C# etc? Then read along, in this project we are going to implement face detection by blending in the power of Arduino and Android. In this project, the mobile camera will move along with your face with the help of servos. The advantage of using the Android Mobile Phone here is that you do not need to invest on a camera module and the whole image detection work can be done in the phone itself, you do not need your Arduino connected to your computer for this to work. Here we have used Bluetooth Module with Arduino to communicate with Mobile wirelessly.

The Android application used in this project was created using Processing Android, you can either directly install the application by downloading the APK file (read further for link) or put on your programming cap and make your own more appealing Android Application using the Processing Code given further in the Tutorial. Learn more about Processing by checking our previous Processing Projects.

By the end of this tutorial you will have a Mini Tilt and Span Robotic Arm that could track your faceand move along with it. You can use this (with further advancement) to record your vlog videos or even take a selfie with the rear camera of your mobile phone since it positions your face exactly at the centre of your mobile screen. So!! Sounds interesting? Check the Demo Video at the end this tutorial to see it working. Let’s see how we can build one…

I have tried my best to make this project to work as simple as possible, anyone with minimum knowledge on hardware or coding can use this guidelines to make this project work in no time. However once you make it I suggest you to get behind the codes so that you can really know what makes this thing work and how.


Real Time Face Detection Tracking Robot using Arduino

Real Time Face Detection and Tracking Project using Arduino

Materials Required:
  1. Arduino Nano
  2. Servo motor SG90 – 2Nos
  3. Android Phone with decent camera
  4. HC-05/HC-06 Bluetooth Module
  5. Computer for programming
  6. 3D printer (optional)
  7. 9V Battery
3D Printing the Required Parts (Optional):

In order to pan and tilt our mobile phone we need some mechanical structures like a mobile holder and a few servo brackets. You can use a cardboard to make one, since I have a 3D printer I decided to 3D print these parts.

3D printing is an amazing tool that can contribute a lot when building prototype projects or experimenting with new mechanical designs. If you have not yet discovered the benefits of a 3D printer or how it works you can read The beginners Guide to 3D printing.

If you own or have access to a 3D printer then you can use the STL files which can be downloaded from here to directly print and assemble them. However few parts like the mobile phone holder might need some modifications based on the dimensions of your phone. I have designed it for my MOTO G mobile phone. I have used a very basic printer of mine to print all the parts. The printer is FABX v1 from 3ding which comes at an affordable price with a print volume of 10 cubic cm. The cheap price comes with a trade off with low print resolution and no SD card or print resuming function. I am using software called Cura to print the STL files. The settings that I used to print the materials are given below you can use the same or change them based on your printer.



Arduino Projects List For Final Year Students


Arduino is a single-board microcontroller. It is intended to make the application of interactive objects or environments more accessible. The hardware consists of an open-source hardware board designed around an 8-bit Atmel AVR microcontroller, or a 32-bit Atmel ARM. Here, we are listing out some of the best and very useful Arduino project ideas which are collected from different resources and are very interesting to implement them.

Arduino Projects List Final Year Students

Simple Arduino Projects with Code 

Published in 2017
  1. Arduino Line Follower Robot
  2. Robotic ARM Arduino
  3. Voice Activated Home Automation
  4. Arduino Based Home Automation Using TV Remote
  5. Arduino Controlled Power Outlet
  6. Arduino Capacitance Meter
  7. DHT11 Humidity Sensor Arduino
  8. Use 5v Relay Arduino
  9. Arduino Based Color Detector
  10. Touch Dimmer Switch Circuit Using Arduino
  11. Wireless Door Bell
  12. Stepper Motor Control Using Arduino
Published in 2016
  1. Arduino Home Automation Using RF
  2. Arduino Mail Notifier
  3. Arduino and RF Transmitter Receiver Module
  4. Arduino Calculator
  5. Arduino RFID Reader
  6. Arduino Relay Control
  7. Arduino Traffic Light Controller
  8. Frequency Counter Using Arduino
  9. Arduino Servo Motor
  10. DC Motor Control With Arduino
  11. Rotary Encoder With Arduino
  12. Arduino LED Matrix
  13. Arduino 4-Digit 7-Segment LED Display
  14. Arduino based Digital Thermometer
  15. Arduino Solar Tracker
  16. Arduino Light Sensor
  17. Portable Ultrasonic Range Meter
  18. GSM Based Home Security Alarm System Using Arduino
  19. Arduino Alarm Clock
  20. How To Make A Tilt Sensor With Arduino?
  21. Digital Arduino Voltmeter
  22. Speed and Direction Control of DC Motor using Arduino
  23. Obstacle Avoiding Robot using Arduino
  24. Interfacing LCD with Arduino
  25. Basic Arduino Tutorials For Beginners
  26. Arduino Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)
  27. How to Write Arduino Code for Beginners?
  28. Arduino Serial Communication
  29. Arduino Program Analysis
  30. How To Program Arduino?
  31. How to Install Arduino?
  32. Arduino Introduction 
  33. How to Connect Arduino Uno to Android via Bluetooth?
Latest Arduino Projects
  • DIY Arduino powered GoPro Panning Rig:This is a demo and overview of my Arduino powered camera panning rig. It used a Arduino Uno, LCD button shield, 5v Stepper motor & driver and a bunch of misc hardware.
  • Smart Sock Augments Existing Prostheses’ Abilities:The prosthetic limbs available today are lack of sensation. Many researches were going on about this. This project describes the development of smart prosthetic sock that has ability to sense, i.e. it can tell about pressure applied, foot it is being touched etc.
  • Shining Back Live Set Blows Your Mind with Light and Sound:Shining back is a grid structure having leads that switches to the Duo’s live rhythms. This application runs on Arduino UNO and uses Mad mapper, module8 software.
  • The Gooniebox Challenges Guests to Solve Its Riddles:Here a puzzle box is designed by using the Arduino board for the entertaining the guests. The participant must unlock the treasure box present at the bottom by pressing the button and other interactions.
  • Cutting Cable with Scissors and Arduino:An automatic cable cutter at very lost is designed here. Manual cutting of this wire is time taking as the business grows, but at the same time industrial cutters are very costly. Here 3D printed wires were used for feeding the wire to the scissors.
  • A DIY Autonomous Ford Focus… Or Is It?:This projects gives a demo on automation of ford focus car. This system uses five cameras, ultrasonic sensors and Arduino. Each camera has its own Arduino board. All these are connected to a master system. Inside the car micro view is connected to ensure that this is working fine.
  • Flip frame Is a Rotating Digital Picture Frame:Here a rotating digital picture frame is designed from the discarded LCD TV. This uses raspberry pi and the Arduino. Raspberry pi is used to display the images sideways and Arduino is used to flip the screen.
  • Square Off Is a Chess Board with A High-Tech Twist:The chess board designed here allows you to play the chess on board with anyone in the world. This is a smartest, connected chess board. It is designed using Arduino as its core.
  • Self-Driving Tricycle:The self-driving tricycle drives itself by a command without control of the operator. Use of tricycle reduces our dependence on fossil fuels.
  • Collector is a Kind of Reality Re-Mixer:The system proposed here collects the loud sounds from its surroundings and plays them back by eliminating the silence. It plays the sounds in the order it has collected. This system also had a rotating robotic stereo microphone.
  • Ping Pong FM:A fun musical game is designed in this project. The ping pong FM is a table tennis played per the song played. Players can choose their own song. If the ball is missed, song slows down automatically.
  • Check the Traffic Autonomously On a Modified Clock:This project shows a smart wall clock that shows the traffic intensity on the roads. This clock consists of 12 RGB LEDs which turns red when the traffic is heavy and green when traffic density is low. These LEDs were controlled by the Arduino Uno board. The Arduino 1sheeld connected to the smart phone acquires the data about traffic from the internet. Accordingly, LEDs were switched.
  • Galaga Revived as a 4/5 Scale Mame MachineGalaga MAME arcade machine is a game built using raspberry pi and MAME software. This project shows the building of this machine using an old CRT. An automated remote control is designed for this using Arduino and IR LEDs in order to switch it on and change from TV to AV mode.
  • A Sheet Metal Arduino MP3 Alarm Clock: The alarm clock shown in this project   is equipped with   Arduino, MP3 player, RTC. It is using a 3.2 inch touch screen display. This set up is placed in a metal sheet. It plays the music and shows the current song and time.
  • Build Your Own Electronic Drum Kit Using an Arduino Mega: This project shows building an electronic drum kit using Arduino mega. The nine-set drum kit shown here is build using readily available components.
  • Electro Pollock: The “Electro Pollock” is a special drawing machine that activates according to the music played. Music is analyzed by an algorithm that activates the servo motors with brushes, fan to spray the painting, electrical valves.
  • Arduino Thumb Piano: The Arduino thumb piano employs Arduino Uno, some metal rods and accelerometer. A beautiful music can be played from this instrument. It is named as kalimbo.
  • Electronic Message in a Bottle:This project shows building a circuit inside the bottle using LEDs. The scrolling message is displayed in the bottle. Here is how one can build a circuit inside the bottle.
  • LCD with DS3231 Real Time Clock Module: This project gives the description of Clock using RTC and Arduino. Here DS3231 is used. RTC can count the time and date even in the absence of power.
  • Smart Gaming (Ensorinstituut): Smart gaming is very useful to control the children from playing games for long time. Time for which a child can play a game is set. If the time is reached screen is becomes invisible and game stops automatically. A notification message is sent to the parent indicating the time ,when their child started playing the game.D25
  • Food Detector: The proposed project detects the food. Generally, the types of food are detected by measuring its resistance. Name of the food is displayed on the LCD.
  • Sigfox Talking Plant: The talking plant is designed such that it speaks on the twitter. Sigfox is a network that connects the plant to internet. One can monitor the messages from the plant in the internet.
  • The Traffic Light: Traffic lights are designed using Arduino in this project. In this project Led lights were used as traffic lights. The sequence of lights is processed by the Arduino.
  • The Inventive Toothbrush: A smart brush which sends a notification to parents when brushes his/her tooth is explained here. This inventive brush plays a pleasant music, when child is brushing. It also gives some instructions for a good brushing behaviour.
  • Singing Arduino: This project consists of an Arduino playing music. A web page is present in which one can select the songs to be played. Time can also be set to play the song at particular time.
  • Smart Plastic Container: Smart plastic container monitors the stock kept inside it. It sends a notification to the user using it. It also updates the same in the web page.
  • Add a $15 Display to the Raspberry Pi: This projects shows how to connect a OLED display to the raspberry pi. Raspberry pi is a mini computer; it is sometimes requiring display connected to it.
  • Transport checker (Ensorinstituut): Transport checker will send a notification to the mobile which is connected to the public transport network. Details like bus number, time of arrival etc. were sent to the user mobile.
  • DIY Flight Instruments for Horizon and Compass: Motion sensor MPU6050 is visualised by using a flight simulator in this project.
  • Excel Arduino Remote (Proof of Concept): This project shows the concept of connecting Arduino to the excel sheet. A step by step procedure is explained here.
  • Free Parking for You (Ensorinstituut): This system designed here shows a free parking spot in an area. It also sends a message if the spot is occupied.
  • Arduino Clock with Neopixel Ring Animation: The project shows the Arduino clock using RTC IC. Time is displayed using a neopixel ring. Neopixel ring is beautiful arrangement of leds.
  • Eggzact Science: This system can be used in modern egg farms. Eggs laid are passed through a sensor. The sensor detects these eggs counts them. This data is updated on the web server.
  • Arduino UNO Guitar Pedal: The idea here is to create a guitar pedal and create your own digital sound from this without knowledge on DSP processor.
  • Intelligent Charger for 9V NiMH Rechargeable Batteries V1: An intelligent smart charger that charges the 9vNIMh battery is proposed here. The charger can automatically, stops charging when battery is fully charged.
  • Doorbell: Doorbell shows the connecting of a device to the cloud. Door connected to the cloud can be operated from anywhere. The transmitter actually opens door while the receiver rings and is used to open the door.
  • The Train of the Future: This is prototype of future train. Trains in future will give the information like their location and only authenticated passengers were allowed into the train. The same is explained in this project.
  • Sensal – All Senses Alarm Clock: Instead of an alarm clock that produces ugly sound ,an alarm which awakes you with pleasant fell was developed. This is called sunrise alarm. The alarm switches on the LED light instead of sound.
  • Build a Simple Cocktail Drinkbot with Arduino :Here is a robot that  can make cocktail using arduino is shown.
  • Arduino running 600 Pixel NeoPixel LED Panel : Here is the 600 pixel neopixel Led panel running using arduino UNO.
Arduino Sensors Projects
  • Wooden Arduino Knocking Calculator: This is a mathematical invention made by using Arduino. In this project we design a calculator by implementing the knock sensor (sound sensor) in a wooden box. To perform the mathematical operations, we run the Arduino program in computer.
  • Smartwatch Prototype Turns Your Wrist into a Joystick: Smart watches can be used as an alternative to the smart phones. But for operating these smart watches it is necessary to use another hand. So, an interactive smart watch that can be controlled using gestures of the hand to which it is held is shown here. This contains several IR sensors, piezo vibration sensor and an Arduino board.
  • This Arduino G Meter Shows How Fast Your Car Really Is!: This project shows how fast your car is driving. It uses Arduino along with acceleration sensor. This project shows how many G’s that this car is pulling.
  • Smoke Detection using MQ-2 Gas Sensor: Smoke detection is done using MQ2 smoke sensor. When the smoke level greater than a certain level, a buzzer starts ringing and a red LED is switched ON.
  • Ultrasonic Map-Maker using an Arduino Yun: This project uses ultrasonic sensor and Arduino. This sensor transmits ultrasonic waves and if nay obstacle is present it reflects back. Arduino calculates the distance between the obstacle by using the time taken by the waves to reflect back. Servo motor rotates the sensor at particular angle.
  • Reef Controller: Reef/aquarium maintenance is bit difficult task. This system allows the user to monitor the temperature, lighting etc of the tank. Arduino sends the status of these sensors the user, accordingly user can control these parameters.
  • Automatic Pet Watering System: The automatic pet watering system, monitors the water level in the tub. If the water level is below the fixed, it automatically fills water into it. Water level is sensed using ultrasonic sensor.
  • Arduino Based Distance Sensor: Arduino based distance sensor uses 2 sensors along with Arduino. The two sensors are infrared proximity sensor and ultrasonic range finding sensor. The IR sensor has a light source, which bounces the infrared light from the objects to the sensor. The ultrasonic range finer sensor produces the high frequency sound waves and calculates the echo time, to determine the distance.


IOT Projects Using Arduino
  • IOT PCR: Low Cost DNA Replication Connected to the Internet.: PCR acronym is acronym for polymerase chain reaction. This process is used to replicate certain parts of the DNA. The process carried out in a device called thermocycler. Here a simple thermocycler of low cost and easy to use was proposed. It can also be controlled through internet,
  • Baby-Pram Monitoring System: This system attached to baby’s pram can monitor various parameters like temperature, acceleration, light etc. IOT is used to monitor these parameters in the system.
  • Mind Controlled Arduino Robot: This project shows a robot that works on electrical signals generated from the brain. It requires Arduino, EEG band. When you focus more on the robo moves fast, if you wander it slows down automatically.
  • Deltu Gaming Robot: Deltu is a gaming robot that plays small games with the user. The user should mimic it. If not it will shake side to side, stops playing and opens the camera, take pictures and upload them to Instagram.
  • Robotic Fish Swims Under Arduino Control: The robo fish shown here can swim in the water. This fish is made up of Arduino, bent PVC pipe. This fish can be controlled using TV remote. The tail is powered through water.
  • Robot Car Controlled Using G-Sensor Smartphone: Here is the project showing the controlling of robot car using Bluetooth and smart phone. Bluetooth app is used to control the robot. Bluetooth receiver is connected to the robot via Arduino.
  • Arduino Based Line Following Robot: The Arduino based line following robot is operated by two servo motors at its wheels. The servo motors and the light sensors work with coordination move the robot on specific line.
  • Arduino Based Obstacle Avoiding Robot: The Arduino based obstacle avoiding robot will be able to move away or shift its path by sensing the obstacles. This project uses the concept of distance measuring using distance sensor drivers.
  • Arduino Based Robotic ARM: The Arduino based robotic arm project is a simple robotics project which uses the Arduino board to control the robotic arm. We can move this arm by sending commands through Arduino.
  • Arduino-Controlled Robotic Drum: This Arduino based project is used as drummer, controlled by the Arduino. Artificial sticks are moved according to the music and play the drum. The movement of the sticks are controlled by the Arduino.
  • Basic Arduino Robotic Vehicle: This project, Arduino robot is to build and control the robot by Arduino programming. By this, we can control the robot with our computer by using motor controller and distance sensor and Bluetooth slave in the robot.
  • Robofish – Swimming Arduino Robot: Robo fish- the name itself denote that this project is to build a robofish and controlling it. In this project we design a fish and make it to swim in pool or water like original fish, skipping the obstacles. It uses 3 servos to swim and position sensors to avoid obstacles.
  • Robot That Reads and Speaks RSS Feeds: This project explains us about the rss feed reading robot. in rss feed read and speak robot project, the robot we designed will not only reed the rss feeds, but it can also speak out the feeds like humans.
  • Self-Balancing Segway-Like Robot Arduino: The operation of self-balancing Segway is just like robot, which uses gyroscope to measure the tilt and adjusts itself automatically. This project uses the analog accelerometer along with the Arduino board to control itself.
  • Simple Obstacle Avoiding Robot Arduino: The obstacle avoiding robot can be designed by using Arduino and distance sensors. By using this project, we design a robot which senses the obstacles in its way and it avoids automatically.
Arduino Medical Projects
  • Touch Up Control Hospital Bed from iPad: This touch up control hospital bed is controlled from iPad, by using Arduino. we can move the hospital bed up and down and can adjust the height level by pressing the buttons in ipad, instead of pressing the physical buttons.
Arduino Wireless Projects
  • Arduino Based Home Automation: The Arduino controller is used to control the home appliances, without any wired connection. The wireless connectivity of the Arduino based automation system uses the simple components like relay and resisters. It controls the home appliances by using the Wi-Fi enabled device.
  • Arduino Based Wireless Power Meter: The Arduino based wireless power meter is to measure the number of units of power of an acceptable range. The main goal of the project is to present the accurate information of consumed energy, to the user.
  • RC Car Controlled Via the Web: The main goal of this project is to control the motion of a remote controlled car by using web and Arduino. The Arduino board controls the car by using the local server installed in the user’s system. When the Arduino sketch runs on system, the car will move in different directions as per user’s wish.
  • Tweet-A-Watt Wireless Electricity Monitor: This Arduino based project is used to monitor the power usage of the household appliances through social media. The Arduino will monitor the power usage of appliances by using heat shrinks. By connecting to the social media (in this project we used twitter) we will get notified by getting push messages by using Arduino.
  • Wireless Online Remote Chess: This is a gaming project developed by using an Arduino. By using this project, we can develop the multiplayer chess game, controlled by using Arduino. the chess board is connected with the motion sensors to record their motion. the Arduino is connected to the web server and thus we can indicate the motion of the chess coins.
  • Xbee Wireless Accelerometer: This project is to design the xbee based accelerometer by using Arduino. The xbee will work as data receiver. By programming the Arduino, we can control the accelerometer sensor operation.
  • Arduino Wireless Animatronic Hand: The wireless animatronic hand project is like robotic hand moment project. In this project, we will move the hand by controlling its operations by the Arduino. The servos implemented in the hand glove will move according to the Arduino instructions.
Arduino Bluetooth Projects
  • IMU to You!: Inertial measurement unit is nothing but measurement of Agular rate, specific force, magnetic field etc. This project describes the measurement of these data and transferring to the mobile device via Bluetooth.
  • Arduino Bluetooth Basic Tutorial: Interfacing of Bluetooth module to the Arduino is explained here.AN example controlling an Led sing blue tooth is shown in this project
  • Arduino Bluetooth Android to Arduino Communication: This project is based on both the android and Arduino, which lets you to control your Arduino kit by using the Bluetooth of the android smart phone. To communicate with the Arduino, android need an interface, Android. By using this interface, android sends the text commands to Arduino.
Arduino Home Automation Projects
  • Build an Entire Home Automation System with a Raspberry Pi and Arduino: This project shows the home automation system built using Arduino and raspberry pi. Several sensors were used for monitoring the various parameters in home.
  • Gestured Controlled Smart Home: A gesture controlled smart home system is proposed here. This project uses Mayo for detecting the hand gestures. These gestures are used for controlling the appliances.
  • Non-Intrusive Elderly Smart Home (NESH): The proposed project monitors the smart homes with elderly people. Homes are fitted with different sensors. Data from these sensors like when they woke up, medication taken etc. is sent to the relatives or guardians.
  • Control your Light System Using Smart Phone: Smart homes are increasing these days. The proposed project controls the home appliances using smart home. Arduino plays a key role by processing the data.
  • RF Based Smart Home Automation System: This project explains about automation of home using the RF. Arduino is used to proceeds the data received from RF and control the appliances.
  • Gas Detector / Indicator (USB Powered) With Arduino: This Arduino project is of home automation and safety. In this project we design an instrument to detect the presence of gas by using a sensor and we indicate it by using a 7 segment LCD display. The gas detection and indication operation is achieved by an Arduino.
Arduino Security Projects
  • Security Access Using RFID Reader: Interfacing of RFID reader to the Arduino is explained here along with the code.
  • Arduino Based Home Security System: The Arduino based home security system is used to for providing security to the living places. With this, we can provide safety and can prevent theft and theft attempts, and un authorized entry of restricted persons.
  • Arduino Based Security System: The Arduino based home security system is used to for providing security to the living places. With this, we can provide safety and can prevent theft and theft attempts, and un authorized entry of restricted persons.
  • Arduino Night Security Alarm with PIR Sensor: The Arduino is very useful for home automation and security applications. This Arduino based night security alarm is used to for providing security at night times. With this, we can provide safety and can prevent theft and theft attempts.
  • Arduino Security Alarm with Reed Switch: The Arduino security alarm with read switch project is used to alert the user by sending or ringing alarm at if any theft attempt is observed by the sensor. This is a home automation and security project based on Arduino along with reed switch and piezo buzzer.
  • Notifying Doorbell with Pushingbox: The Arduino based notifying push bell is a home security based project. In this project, we are able to hack the doorbell in order to send the push notifications to mobile. We can also send an email with an attached picture when somebody is present at the door. The Arduino programming will work along with pushing box service to do this task.
Arduino Quadcopter Projects
  • Arduino Based Quadcopter: With Arduino, we can design a quadcopter also. We can control the quadcopter by remote. The quadcopter uses the servo motors at its rotors and by controlling the motors we can control the speed of the quadcopter.
  • Open-Source Quadcopter: In this project we design an Arduino based open source quadcopter to navigate and provide the dangerous areas such as war fields. This can be used for the surveillance of the situations and also to send the information to radio stations without putting any human in risk.
  • Arduino Based Flight Controller For Quadcopter: In this project, we use Arduino to control the speed and altitude of the quadcopter. For this, it uses the Arduino flight controller board along with various sensors, such as gyro scope and accelerometer. We may provide additional sensors to hold the altitude level of the quadcopter.
Arduino RFID Projects
  • RFID Access Control System: RFID based access control system is a home security project based on Arduino. it provides security to the home or offices based on the authorization of user’s identity. The authorization is provided by the RFID card.
  • RFID Cat Door: This project lets us to control the pet cage door. The whole process is controlled by an Arduino. The cage door will open only when the pet wears the appropriate RFID tag. Using this Arduino project, we can protect our pet from other animals.
Arduino Laser Projects
  • Keep Your Cat Entertained with an Automated Laser Tower: This project shows building a laser tower that entertains the cats. It uses Arduino Uno, two servo motors, Pan/tilt camera mount, tin for placing the set up.
  • Automated Cat Laser: The Cat Bot is an autonomous laser toy for your cat. It produces a rotating (moving) laser beam by using the servos attached in it. Using two servos, an Arduino you can provide your cat with endless fun.
  • Fantastic Arduino Laser Harp: The Arduino laser harp is a musical instrument which produces light beams. When this Arduino controlled laser harp is connected to any synthesizer, it will make some MIDI tunes along with light effects.
  • Laser Harp Fully Functional: Laser harp project produces the laser light beams by using LEDs and laser. This Arduino based project works depending on the photo resistors. The photo resistors are connected in a particular manner to receive the laser beam from a simple laser.
  • Laser Maze Powered by Arduino: Laser maze circuit is a security application, designed by using Arduino. It is mostly used in jewel store to prevent theft and to catch intruders. This project uses Arduino to control the laser maze and ring an alarm when the maze is disturbed.



  • Arduino 7 Segment Led Display and Counter: This Arduino project is very simple and easy. Arduino platform can be used for simple counting operations. It uses a LCD screen (7 segment LCD display) to display the increment counting operation of the Arduino from 0 to 9. The seven segment display will display the numeric (numbers) by depending upon the Arduino sketch.
  • Arduino Based Alarm Clock: We can design an alarm clock with time and date by using Arduino UNO compatible board. It also uses a LCD (for display purpose) and a real-time clock module. The whole circuit will be built on a prototyping shield and connected to a power supply. The piezo electric buzzer will ring at the present time intervals.
  • Arduino Based Auto Intensity Control Of Street Lights: The main aim of this project is to continuously monitor the power using devices and controlling their power consumption. This light intensity controlling system will use the bunch of LED lights along with the Arduino. The operation and intensity of the LED will be controlled by Arduino, by considering the requirement of the light at peak hours and non-peak hours.
  • Arduino Based Autopilot System: In this project we design an Arduino based aircraft (auto pilot) system, to navigate and provide live video from the dangerous areas such as war fields. This can be used for the surveillance of the situations and also to send the weather information to radio stations without putting any human in risk.
  • Arduino Based Battery Charge: By using Arduino, we can design a simple battery charger. The main aim of the project is to create the charger by using Ni – Mh batteries. The battery charging can be monitored by Arduino.
  • Arduino Based Car Parking System: This project explains us the automated parking system of vehicles. It uses the Arduino controller and IR sensors to locate the surrounded obstacles (vehicles). This is one of the most used real time objectives in parking areas.
  • Arduino Based Energy Meter: Using Arduino, we can monitor the power (energy) used by a system and alert the user by sending him text messages. The energy level or the current and voltage ranges are observed by using an LCD display.
  • Arduino Based GPS Tracker: We can locate the vehicle or human by tracking them using Arduino. The Arduino based gps tracking system uses GPS module for locating the vehicle on maps. It requires simple elements like battery and antennas, but with very low cost we can design a tracking system by using Arduino.
  • Arduino Based Heart Rate Monitor: This project is most helpful for the medical field applications. The Arduino based heart rate monitoring system will use the finger pulse rate recording module along with the Arduino. This pulse detecting sensor wills works depending upon the pulse –plethysmography principle.
  • Arduino Based Incubator: The Arduino based incubator is developed by the idea of medical conditions in rural areas. This project can be effectively used by the technicians to save the life of chickens and infants. The Arduino micro controller is used to control the temperature of the system.
  • Arduino Based Intervalometer: The Arduino based intervalometer is used to monitor the things continuously, by the control cameras in it. We use the Arduino to control the camera and the infrared LED. The ice is set to take pictures for every pre-set time interval.
  • Arduino Based Joystick: The Arduino based joystick is designed by using potentiometers and by using this joystick, we can control the electronic systems like computer. We design this module by implementing the Digital to analog converter.
  • Arduino Based Light Dimmer: The aim of Arduino based light dimmer project is to maintain the triac at the mains, always. The dimmer circuit works by designing a diode bridge by using junction diodes. This bridge will control the voltage across the bulb by using pulse width modulation.
  • Arduino Based MP3 Player: Arduino based mp3 player is a cool project to work on. Arduino is capable of producing sound waves by implementing some components to it, like speakers. It will work on the principle of voltage divider circuit.
  • Arduino Based Oscilloscope: Arduino is capable of producing different waveforms, by using atmega controller and so that it acts as an oscilloscope. It can produce very high speed oscillations as it has very high speed clock.
  • Arduino Based Part Fill Automatic Valve: Part fill vales are mostly used in rain water tanks. Arduino is used to control the water valve as the water level reaches the minimum level, so that a constant minimum water level is maintained in the tank.
  • Arduino Based Shadow Alarm: Arduino based shadow alarm is an opto sensitive circuit, which will activate the buzzer or alarm as the light intensity changes. It is majorly used to detect the intruders and to sound an alarm depending on the light dependent resistors.
  • Arduino Based Temperature Controller: Arduino based temperature controller is used to control and monitor the temperature of the elements by using the temperature sensor. This temperature sensor continuously monitors the temperature of devices and alerts if it exceeds the preset level.
  • Arduino Based Thermostat: We all know the thermostat is a temperature monitoring device. As it connected with the Arduino, the thermostat (temperature sensor) will continuously monitor the temperature of a room or device. We can visually observe the temperature level by using the LCD display.
  • Arduino Based Tilt Detector: Arduino based tilt detector is used to detect the tilt of the objects. It uses the accelerometer and LED to detector the tilt in the objects at the time of earth quakes and motion detection etc.
  • Arduino Based Underground Cable Fault Detection: This project works based on ohms law. In this Arduino based underground cable fault detection project, we find out the broken wires which are under layered in ground. This uses a set of resisters and set of switches to check the faults in wires
  • Arduino Based Vehicle Parking Counter: The vehicle parking counter will count the number of vehicles that are entering the parking lot. The parking count can be counted by using 2 sensors at the entrance of the parking.
  • Arduino Based Voltmeter: The Arduino voltmeter converts the applied AC voltage signal into DC voltage, by using a voltage divider circuit. The voltage divider circuit can be modified to work at different voltages by connecting it to different basic components.
  • Arduino Based Water Level Controller: The Arduino based water level controller will control the water level of a tank automatically by detecting the water level by using sensors. As the water level increases the preset level, the circuit alerts the user by sounding an alarm and it automatically turn off the tap/pump.
  • Arduino Camping Led Light: This camping light circuit will use the LED lights to understand the camping operation of lights. The operation of the LEDs is controlled by the Arduino board and push buttons in it.
  • Arduino Christmas Led Lights Bar: Working with this Arduino based Christmas lights project is very easy and fun. We can make the Arduino board to work with LEDs to light as Christmas light effect, by using just simple electronic components.
  • Arduino Controlled Yoghurt / Beer Maker: The Arduino controlled yogurt maker is used to prepare the yogurt in home by controlling the temperature and cooking time of the yogurt. It uses the thermostat for temperature monitoring and a heat sink for the temperature control.
  • Arduino Digital Voltmeter: The Arduino voltmeter converts the applied AC voltage signal into DC voltage, by using a voltage divider circuit. The voltage divider circuit can be modified to work at different voltages by connecting it to different basic components.
  • Arduino Firefly Jar with The Atmega32: The Arduino firefly jar is an artificial method of creating firefly effect by using Arduino UNO board and ATmega 32. This projects works on very simple technique that, the photoresister will control the switching of the LEDs depending upon the light intensity.
  • Arduino Hall Effect Sensor (Gaussmeter): This Arduino based gauss meter is used to measure the magnetic field using the hall effect based sensor. This project can be used for experimenting on magnetism. The magnetic field strength will be displayed on LCD screen.
  • Arduino Icicle Lights with Leds: This icicle lights project will work using LEDs along with the Arduino board. The LEDs will on and off in a sequence and the sequence of lights and the switching can be controlled by Arduino.
  • Arduino Multiple Lights Dimmer: In this Arduino based multiple lights dimmer project, the lights are cascaded with each other. And their operation is controlled by using the opto coupler. The cascaded lamps or lights are ramps down to in an order to on and off, with some delay.
  • Arduino Music Player: Arduino based mp3 player is a simple and easy project. Arduino is capable of producing sound waves by implementing some components to it, like speakers. It will work on the principle of voltage divider circuit.
  • Arduino Painting Machine: This Arduino based paint machine is used to reduce the human effort and errors while painting the walls. This project uses the stepper motors and brush servos to paint the required areas, by using the Arduino.
  • Arduino Panic Alarm: The Arduino based panic alarm project is used to alert the user whenever the user gets panic, by ringing an alarm. The piezo electric buzzer is used to produce the alarm sound. It uses two main elements to do this, such as Arduino micro controller board and interfacing device.
  • Arduino Powered Binary Clock: We can design a binary clock by using Arduino. This project needs simple electronic elements like LEDs. The LEDs are arranged in a sequence to display the analog clock.
  • Arduino Powered Lucky Cat As Physical Webcounter: This project is used to make indicate us when person visits our web page or web site. The lucky cat idol will make us to know this by connecting this to the web server by using Arduino. This project uses the simple hardware components like LED and servo motors.
  • Arduino Powered Mobile Phone: The cell phone can charge the Arduino by using its Li ion battery. This Arduino powered mobile phone project will be useful for charging applications, by using simple elements like diodes and resisters.
  • Arduino Powered Poker Table: The Arduino based poker table is used to produce the illuminated lights around the poker table. This project runs by using the web page hosted on local server, which is connected to the Arduino. We can also control this from a mobile phone.
  • Arduino PWM Led Control: In this project, we control the brightness of an LED by using pulse width modulation technique and Arduino. The Arduino board is stuffed with basic hard ware components and as the width of the wave for in pulse width modulation technique varies, the brightness of the LED also varies.
  • Arduino Room Temperature Monitor: This project will help us to monitor the temperature of a room by using a thermostat and Arduino. We can monitor the temperature by using a http server api and can send text messages about the temperature and room conditions.
  • Arduino Self Timer: The Arduino self-timer is a basic Arduino project which can be used as a timer circuit. The timer will be displayed by using an LED display. An led light is also used to indicate the timer visually.
  • Arduino Siren Sound Alarm: The Arduino siren sound alarm project is used to make an alert by powerful audio-visual alert device using the Arduino platform. This circuit produces a loud, wailing sound as a warning signal. And one LED provides the visual alert
  • Arduino Stock Lamp: This Arduino based stock alarm lamp will alert the user by blinking the led when the stocks reaches the preset level. This circuit will need to connect to the server to make an alert about the stocks. This will save us time to check out all the stocks in the internet.
  • Automatic Camera Shutter Switch: The Arduino is used to control the camera shutter after the elapsed time. This requires an interface between Arduino board and a camera. By using some electronic components, the Arduino can send commands to close the shutter of the camera, connected to the Arduino board through a cable.
  • Automatic Head Tracking with Arduino: The Arduino based head tracking system is used to detect the tilt. To detect the tilt, the Arduino uses the gyroscope and a 3 axis accelerometer. The final goal of this project is to control the camera on my RC glider.
  • Blinking A Led with Arduino: This is a very simple Arduino project which uses just a led and resister. The led is connected to the Arduino board by a resister and by running the Arduino code in our computer, we can make the led to blink with a present delay time.
  • Blinking Eyes Arduino Pumpkin: The blinking eyes Arduino pumpkin is a funny and scary idea. In this project we make the pumpkin to move with the help of servos with blinking leds in its eyes. The pumpkin and its motion is controlled by a button, and an Arduino.
  • Blinking Leds Sketch: This is a simple Arduino project with which we can control the led light to blink, by setting the time to on and off. By running the code in our computer, we can make the led to on and off at particular intervals.
  • Brainwave Powered Prosthetic ARM by Arduino: This is a great project idea by using Arduino that will very helpful for handicapped people in real time. The brain wave powered prosthetic arm project will move the robotic hand by the human thoughts. And this module uses Arduino board and the Mindwave Mobile headset.
  • Breathalyzer Microphone: The Breathalyzer microphone is a system for the works on the basis of information collection of blood-alcohol content level data sets. We can measure a person’s sobriety with a device that for all intents and purposes, looks no different than a standard microphone.
  • Calibrate A Sensor Automatically (Calibration): By using this Arduino project, we can calibrate the sensor. Sometimes, the working efficiency of sensors will decrease by time. To work with the sensors properly and effectively, we need to calibrate them. This can be done by Arduino.
  • Cellular Sensor Sentinel: The cellular sentinel project uses the GSM shield to build a remote alarm system based on Arduino platform. This system will alert you within seconds by sending text messages to your cell phone by being connected with the pressure sensor, motion sensors which are implemented at the doors of house and offices.
  • Coin Operated Advice Machine: The coin based advice machine is something that gives you an advice whenever you insert a coin into it. Basically, to get the idea from this coin operated machine, we need to press the button after inserting the coin.
  • Connect an IOS Device to Arduino: We can connect the apple phone (or any iOS bases electronic gadget such as I phone I pad) to the Arduino and we can work with it. The project will let us know, how to connect and work with the iOS device.
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  • Control A Relay with Arduino: In this project, we control the relay by using an Arduino. The jumper wires are connected to the relay and led. When no device is connected to the relay, the led will glow to indicate the no power state.
  • Control LED’s On/Off with IR Remote And Arduino: The main objective of this project is to control the led lights manually with the help of Arduino and remote. We use an IR remote to control the led operation, that means we can turn on and off by the sending and receiving the IR signal from the remote.
  • Control Servo Motors with The Wii Mote Joystick: In this project, we control the motion of servo motors by using a joystick. We use the will mote joystick along with the Arduino board to control its motion.
  • Control the Flashing Rate of An Led Using A Potentiometer (Analog Input): In this project, we control the flashing rate of a led with the potentiometer. The potentiometer is used to control the resistance and thus by current flow to the led. So, depending upon the current flowing to the led, we can make the led on and off.
  • Creating A Single-Cell Battery Tester: The single cell batteries will be of 1.4 volts to 1.6 volts nearly. We can measure the voltage level of the battery by using the analog Read function library of the Arduino. depending on the voltage level of the battery, the leds will glow.
  • Detect A Knock on a Sensor (Knock): The knock sensor is a device which is used to prevent the spark or detonation in the engine, which may cause serious damage to the vehicle engine. By using Arduino we can detect the knock in the engines and can prevent the vehicle from damage.
  • Digital Clock with Arduino and Ds1307: In this project we are going to build a digital clock by using an Arduino and DS1307 real time clock timer IC. This IC provides the year, month, date, hour, minute and second information in binary form through an lcd display.
  • Digital Combination Lock: This is an security application by using an Arduino. the Arduino will control the door lock, by the combination of digits or combinations. the user can lock and unlock the door by pressing the digits on the hex key pad, which consists of numbers and digits. This hex key pad is interfaced with the Arduino and can be operated by the Arduino sketch (programming).
  • Dirt Simple POV Led Display: POV means persistence of vision. We can design a POV led display by using a bunch of leds and Arduino. pov is the vision of blur we seen when waving at an object. In this project, we display the letters and characters on the lcd screen whenthey are moving with different speeds.
  • DIY Gaming with A 3d Controller: The main goal of this project is to make a 3dimentional hand positioning system by using an Arduino. We preserve the semblance of functionality in this project. We can visually observe the hand positioning in the 3D view.
  • DIY Musical Key Tar: The Arduino key tar is used to create the musical sound controlled by an Arduino board. By attaching the strings to the Arduino and controlling them we can produce sounds from the key tar. Whenever the strings of the keytar touches the frets, the system will make a sound.
  • DVD Player Turned into A VFD Clock: In this project, the broken DVD player is turned in to work as a multipurpose clock. The VFD (vacuum fluorescent display) driver is used along with the Arduino to design the clock from a DVD player.
  • Electronic Memory Game: This is a fun filled project using the Arduino board. In this electronic memory game project, we design a game to test the user’s memory power. This project uses simple components like resisters and leds.
  • E-Sleeper – Put Your Pet On Sleep Mode: This is the project designed to deal with our pets. In this project we design a pet bed to make our pet sleepy and calm by using an Arduino, which is known as e-sleeper. The e-sleeper will play different sounds and lit the led lights at constant flashing rate.
  • Fade An LED’s Brightness (Fade / Fading): This is a simple project that fades the led light by depending on Arduino commands. This project doesn’t use ant complicated mechanism. We just use resister and an led in this. The led will fade (adjust the brightness) depending up on the current allowed to it through the Arduino.
  • Fade Led in and Out with Arduino: In this project, the Arduino board is used to control the led switching. The led connected to the Arduino will fade in and out, depending on the current flow through the resister.
  • Fan Speed Controlled by Temperature and Arduino: The fan speed control project is used in small and large industries to control the speed of the fan depending on its temperature level. This project mainly uses the temperature sensor and the Arduino to control the operation of the fan.
  • G-Arduino Automated Gardening System: This project ‘G-Arduino’ is an automatic gardening device, controlled by an Arduino. This project will work on considering the soil moisture and humidity in the atmosphere. The automatic gardening system can be implemented by using simple electrical parts like sensors.
  • Giant 6 Foot Disco Ball Music Visualizer: This football disco visualizer is a party time project using an Arduino. The big sized disco ball is used to produce the light effects according to the music. The football is stuffed with LED bulbs which are controlled by using an Arduino.
  • GPS Cat Tracker: This Arduino based cat tracker project is used to track our pet using the GSM technology. This instrument is tied to the pet and by running the Arduino sketch, we can find the place of our pet in real time, such as in maps.
  • Hack A Nes Controller into A Security Keypad: In this project we hack a NES controller and use it as a security key pad. The Arduino will be used to control the action of an NES. The hacked controller can be used as security systems like door lock, by operating using keys.
  • Hacking of EEG Toys With Arduino: We can hack the EEG toys by using an Arduino. By using a human mind flex interface we can read the data in the EEG toy with certain baud rate.
  • High Speed Photography Using the Arduino: The high speed photography can be achieved by using an Arduino, by controlling the triggering rate of the camera. We use the opto coupler, digital camera with tripod and a triggering device to take the high speed photography.
  • Homemade X-Ray Machine: This project is a simple homemade x ray machine, by using the Arduino. We can see through the things by this project and capture the x-ray images of the things and substances.
  • Interactive Gaming Controller: This interactive gaming controller project is used in gaming applications. We can control the game-play by using a toy connected to Arduino and some motion sensors, manually.
  • Interface A Rotary Phone Dial to an Arduino: The main objective of the project is to interface the rotary phone dial with an Arduino and making use of it. The Arduino sketch is run in the computer to display the operation of rotary dial on the screen.
  • Interfacing with Maya and 3D Studio Max: In this project, we interface the Arduino with the Maya and max 3D studio. By using the servo motors and some we can also move the model manually and also can view the 3d image in computer by running sketch.
  • Knight Rider Effect Sketch: Arduino is used to create the knight rider effect by using LEDs and resister. The LEDs will switch on and off in a particular timing so it will look like the light of one LED is shifted to its neighbour. The Arduino will control the switching of LEDs by running the sketch in system.
  • Leap Motion Tilt Marble Maze: This leap motion tilt marble maze project is based on Arduino. this project uses the motion sensor and Arduino to control the maze tile.
  • Low-Cost Global Satellite Signalling with Iridium: The Arduino based global satellite system is very useful in tracking applications. It uses an Arduino compatible iridium satellite receiver for signal reception. It can also send text messages to the user about the satellite positioning.
  • Make an Led Bar Graph Display (Bar Graph) Arduino: In this project we control the switching of a bunch of LEDs by using Arduino. the LED bar is connected through resisters. The LED bed will receive current through the resisters and that will make the LEDs to on and off, at same time intervals.
  • Make an RGB Combination Door Lock: This is a home automation and security based project using Arduino. the RGB combination of LEDs is used to lock and unlock the door. The Arduino sketch is used to program the module to work the RGB as security lock.
  • Marble Labrynth Controlled Using the Wiifit: This game is designed based on Arduino. the marble labrynth is used to control the wiifit, which are interfaced with Arduino. the Arduino sketch control the motion of the labrynth by detecting the change in motion sensors, adjusted in the wiifit.
  • Metal Detector Made with Arduino: In this project we design a Metal detector by using an Arduino. this device is used to detect the presence of a metal, without touching it. The Arduino based metal detector will work on the principle of inductive sensing.
  • Mind-Controlled Nerf Gun by Arduino: This mind controlled nerf sentry gun will work based on the human mind signals. We use a mind controlled (mind wave read) interface to avoiding misfire. The Arduino board will control the operation of this gun by using the mind read interface.
  • Mirrored Shack Lights Up the Desert Arduino: This mirror shack lights project is providing beautiful light effects by using an Arduino board. This is an outdoor project that can be done by adding mirror strips to the exterior of the shack and installing the custom Arduino controlled electronic stuff inside them.
  • Multi-Touch Touch Screen Music Controller Arduino: The main objective of this project is to design a touch based system to control the music system, by using an Arduino and IR. We can control the music by a touch pad or touch screen by using our fingers.
  • Musical Midi Shoes: This project we will produce the musical tones instead of regular toe sounds, while we are walking. There is a force sensitive resister inserted in shoes that we wear. The force sensitive resister is connected to an Arduino and a piezo buzzer in order to produce sounds.
  • Open Source Game Boy: This is a gaming project that is designed based on Arduino platform. In this project we design a game which can be played by using a joystick. The LCD gaming screen will be used to display the game visually.
  • Overclocking an Arduino With Liquid Nitrogen: In this project we try to increase the clock speed of an Arduino by using liquid nitrogen. The Arduino board is dipped into the liquid nitrogen, its clock speed will increase because of the cryogenic temperature of the liquid N2. An LED is used to indicate the change in clock speed. The yellow LED will turn green due to the increase in band gap, because of the low temperatures.
  • Play Different Tones as Light Intensity Changes (Tonepitchfollower): By using this project, we can play a pitch changeable music tone on the speaker controlled by the light intensity of the LDR. When we move our hand around the LDR, we can change the light intensity so thus we can vary the pitch of the music tone.
  • Potted Plant Protector: By using this Arduino based project we can protect the potted plants. We use the humidity / moisture sensor and temperature sensor to detect the plant conditions. To monitor the plant’s condition, we use a LCD display to visually observe the readings.
  • Proximity Sensor to Automate Your Haunted House: It is an interesting project based on Arduino, to create the haunted house effects. This project is used to detect the presence of our guest in the animated haunted house and to create the horrible light effects by using LED lights and photo transistor.
  • Rainboard – Rgb Led Rainbow Fader: This rainbow fader effect project is designed by using an Arduino and LED lights. This project uses the shift registers and pulse width modulation technique to control the brightness levels of LEDs using just 3 digital pins from the Arduino.
  • Read A Digital Value (Digital Read Serial): Using Arduino is the best method to establish serial port communication. In this “Digital read serial” project, the Arduino will read the digital data provided by user and the built-in ‘serial library’ will establish a serial communication to the user’s computer, with which we are able to see the on the screen.
  • Read an Analog Value (Analogread Serial): Using Arduino is the best method to establish serial port communication. In this “analog read serial” project, the Arduino will read the analog data provided by user and the built-in ‘serial library’ will establish a serial communication to the user’s computer.
  • Reading Temperatures Using I2C, TC04 Sensors and Arduino: This project uses the I2C communication along with the Arduino, to measure the temperatures of 3 different places at a time. It is useful to measure the inside, outside temperatures of a room at a time.
  • Remote Controlling Heavy LCD TV with Smartphone: In this project, we can control the operation of a LCD T.V. by using our smart phone. The tv control mechanism is implemented in smart phone by using Arduino. by using this module, we can change the channels and change the volume and the screen direction of the television.
  • Retro Games Console Based On Arduino: This retro games console project is used to design our own games and play games. This module works based on Arduino. we can use this project to interface a game console while playing games, and also can interface with any other electronic devices to control, or to monitor them.
  • RGB Lamp Controlled from PC: The main objective of this project is to control the RGB lamp from our computer by using an Arduino. The RGB lamp is connected to the system by a module. We can control the RGB light by running the Arduino sketch in system.
  • RGB Liquid Crystal Display Tutorial By Arduino: By using this project, we can change the color of the LCD display. The Arduino board is connected to the LCD display to control it by the Arduino programming.
  • Rocker Scale Measures How Hard You Rock Arduino: Rocker scale is an device which measures the intense and strength levels of playing the rock music instrument. This project uses Arduino to measure the sound levels by using sensors.
  • Rotary Encoder Tutorial with Arduino Code: The rotary encoder is a angular measuring device which is used to measure the rotation of wheels. In this project we use an Arduino board to control the operation of rotary encoder.
  • Secret Knock Detecting Door Lock: This home security based project is used to lock and unlock the door by the secret knocks. When the Arduino board based project is connected to the door, the sensors will detect the knock on the door and if the knock is matched with the feeded door knock sequence, then the lock will open. Otherwise the door will be locked.
  • Self-Guide Golf Club Carrier By Arduino: By using this project, we can make the toy car to work as a golf club carrier. After disassembling the parts of toy car we implement our circuit in the car. The operation of the circuit is then controlled by an Arduino.
  • Sensing Hot and Cold with Arduino: We can sense hot and cold substances by using an Arduino. The temperature sensors are connected to the Arduino along with LEDs. The LEDs are used to represent the temperature of the substances by glowing.
  • Simple Soil Moisture Sensor – Arduino Project: This project is used to detect the moisture level of the soil. The soil moisture sensor is controlled by using an Arduino board. An LED is used to indicate the low moisture level in the soil.
  • SNF Drumming Midi Glove Using Arduino And Light Sensor: This Arduino based project is used to produce midi tone music sounds by using piezo buzzer and LDR resister. The LDR sensors are arranged in a glove. These LDR sensors are used to produce the midi tone by pressing them.
  • Sound-To-Light Particle Light Box: The sound to light box project is designed by using Arduino board. In this project we can generate the light effects by giving sound input. The Arduino LEDs are arranged in the light box, which will receive the sound signal from surroundings and produce light effects.
  • Specialized Umbrella: The specialized umbrella is an Arduino based project which will use LEDs and speakers to generate visual effects and sound effects. The IR distance measuring sensor is arranged in the umbrella to measure the distance when it is approaching to someone and then the LEDs will glow to produce light effects and the speakers around the umbrella will sound an alarm.
  • Switch A Led On by Press Button: This Arduino project is very simple. When we press a button attached to the Arduino board, the LED connected to the Arduino will glow. This means we can switch on and off (toggle the state of LED) by pressing button.
  • Temperature Controlled Relay with Arduino: The temperature controlled relay project is used in industries to control the speed of the fan depending on its temperature level. The relay is connected to the temperature sensor and a dc fan, which are controlled by using Arduino sketch.
  • Text Message-Based Remote Display: The text message based LED display project is used to display the characters on a LCD display, by sending text messages by a GSM module. The Arduino is used to control the gsm operation and the LCD display.
  • The Inebriator an Arduino Powered Cocktail Maker: The inebriator project is used as cocktail maker in house parties. This Arduino based project is used to mix the different types of liquors in particular amount. The quantity of alcohol to be mixed is controlled by using Arduino.
  • The Led Brightness or Fan Speed With Arduino: This Arduino based project is used to control the brightness of the LED or can control the fan speed by using Arduino programming. This project uses simple parts like transistors and potentiometer to control the LED and fan switching.
  • The Magic Crystal Mood Ball Arduino: This magic mood ball project is an Arduino based one, to change its color depending upon the user’s mood and his body temperature. The temperature sensors are used to measure the user’s body temperature and they send command to the LEDs to change their color with increase and decrease in temperature.
  • Transfer The Mintduino from Breadboard To Perfboard: The Arduino based project is used to convert the bread board to use as prefboard. This project uses the atmega controller and reset buttons along with the Arduino.
  • Turn Signal Biking Jacket: The main objective of this project is to design a signalling jacket by using Arduino. the signalling jacket will be display the left and right signals automatically, when the person turns into move in that directions. This project uses the lilly pad LEDs along with Arduino.
  • Turn Your Arduino into A Magnetic Card Reader: In this project we use the Arduino to read the data in magnetic strip. Now a day, most of the important data is being carried in magnetic cards. So to read the digital data stored in a magnetic card, it is a easier way to build our own and basic level magnetic card reader by using Arduino.
  • Twitter Mood Light: The Arduino can be directly connected to any wireless network by using wifily module. So to design a twitter mood light, we use Arduino. in this project we design a LED light that changes its colour by collecting the information of tweets from twitter. The Arduino is used to connect the LED light with the social media.
  • UAV Spy Plane Using the Arduino: In this project we design an Arduino based spy plane (UAV – unmanned Arial vehicle), to navigate through the dangerous areas such as war fields. This can be used for the surveillance of the situations and also to collect the weather information.
  • Use A Potentiometer to Dim A Led (Analog In-Out Serial): The main objective of this project is to design a LED that can be controlled by th potentiometer. The current allowed by the potentiometer will control the lighting (the wavelength) of the LED bulb. The colour of LED will change along with the current (resistance allowed) in potentiometer.
  • Vibrating Gear Stick for Helping Change Gears: This vibrating gear project will help the novice drivers to indicate them to change the vehicle gear. This Arduino based project monitors the gear condition comparing the speed of the vehicle. The Arduino will notify the driver to change the gear when it is not in proper speed-gear combination.
  • VK 2wd Electric Car with Arduino: In the VK electric car project, we design an Arduino controlled electric car. By using a Bluetooth module, we can control this electrical car by using our smart phone also.
  • Web Based Servo Controlled Arduino: The web based servo controller project is designed based on Arduino. the speed of the servo motor is monitored by Arduino, and by connecting this Arduino to the web server (using our computer) we can control its speed.
  • Website Visitor Blinker Christmas Bell Arduino: This project is used to indicate us when person visits our web page or web site. The xmas bell will let us to know this by connecting this to the web server by using Arduino. This project uses the simple hardware components like and servo motors along with the web page or web server.
  • Wiimote Controlled Espresso Machine Arduino: This project is a simple Arduino based coffee machine. The Arduino will control the espresso machine by using a wii remote.
  • 16×12 Grid Midi Step Sequencer: We can build our own step sequencer by using Arduino. Though the step sequencer has massive array of buttons, we can easily work with it. It has a light grid with built in LEDs, which can be operated by user, manually. It doesn’t need any system/ computer to operate.
  • A Connected Thermostat: We all know the thermostat is a temperature monitoring device. As it connected with the Arduino, the thermostat will continuously monitor the temperature of a room or device. We can visually observe the temperature level by using the LCD display.
  • Advanced Arduino Sound Synthesis: Arduino is able to produce wave forms of any shape by varying the make time and space time of the wave form. The Arduino system clock is of very high speed (16MHz) so it can produce very high frequency waves. By using the “Prescalar” hardware, we can slow down the high frequency wave forms.
  • Android-Controlled Beer Tap: The Arduino and Android platforms are combinable used to supervise the beer consumption. The android is used to check and authorize the consumer’s identity and then it allows the Arduino to operate the beer tap.
  • Appliance Remote Control Arduino Project: We can control the home appliances better than GSM, by using Arduino. The Arduino is connected with an IR receiver and it receives the encoded signals from IR remote. The built in library of Arduino will decode the received signals and controls the AC operated home appliances, like switch, fan and TV set etc.
  • Arduino Traffic Light Timing Lesson: The Traffic Light Controller enables you to gain control of your road rage with a sense of understanding!
  • Aquaponics Online Temperature and Humidity: By using Arduino, we can measure and monitor the temperature on a place through online. This project use the scalable application platform developed and hosted by Google cloud, Google app Engine. This app is will need to install on the browser when we are monitoring the humidity and temperature of a place.
Other Project Lists –



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Wireless Electricity: WiTricity

Wireless Electricity: WiTricity

You sit in a time machine and travel to the far future. What you notice is that everything is powered by an invisible force. Cars are flying in the sky without any visible energy source. Homes are lit without any power line. Even the portable cell phones and music players are working without a battery. You served are by your robot all the time without any complaint of discharged batteries.

You may laugh and say, “Well, any type of speculation about future is possible so let it be”. Or you may consider the technology as simply not possible.

As the saying goes that reality is weirder than fiction, wireless power is not just a thought borrowed from the science fiction. It is a reality and in the near future, we all will be having this power for our service.


Wireless Electricity

Wireless Electricity: WiTricity


To realize this dream, a team of MIT students from the Department of Physics, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, and Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies (ISN) embarked on a journey of research and experimentation. The team members are Andre Kurs, Aristeidis KaraIis, Robert Moffatt, Prof. Peter Fisher, and Prof. John Joannopoulos (Francis Wright Davis Chair and director of ISN), led by Prof. Marin SoIjacic.

What they have presented is astonishing. They have managed to light a 60 watts bulb from a distance of 7 feet without wires or any other physical link. The team leader got the idea of powering the portable devices wirelessly when he was often annoyed by his cell phone when its battery would go low on charge.


Wireless power transmission is already in use by us but at feeble levels. All radio stations transmit their programs wirelessly using the electromagnetic energy. Even you can build your own A.M radio that will work without batteries, using the energy of the received waves. This radio is simply known as crystal radio and was built even by soldiers in World War 2. But don’t expect too much sound out of it as the energy captured is of minute amount. Higher the aerial, louder the output because of more energy captured.

In fact, the father of wireless power transmission was Nicola Tesla. He did experiments about its implementation decades earlier. He was quite successful in his efforts but could not further his work because of economic constraints. He even lit many bulbs in the fields at Colorado Springs in 1899 by using ground tuned coils.


Wireless Electricity

In Focus: Nicola Tesla, one of America’s greatest electrical and mechanical engineers. Born in Smiljan, Croatia on July 10, 1856. Died on January 7, 1943 in New Yorker hotel, USA.


Although Marconi is credited with the invention of radio, Nicola Tesla was the true inventor of wireless communication.

Modern wireless communication systems could not be envisioned without the basic techniques and circuits that Tesla devised. He was the inventor of induction motor which leads to the second Industrial revolution of United States of America. Invention of RADAR was made possible by his work. He developed instruments for the generation of X-rays. One of his tube designs lead to the invention of modern electronic microscope. He designed the ignition system of automobiles using the ignition coil. Although not yet practically realized, Tesla designed rotary disk type engines that are considered to be more efficient than modern day piston type internal combustion engines. Much of his work is still remaining to be studied. Maybe our modern work world is not capable enough to continue the work of this genius.


Tesla was far ahead of his time. His invention has no immediate applications and because of this he did not receive considerable as compared to his rival, Edison. It is an inherent flaw in the curricula of our educational institutions that we never knew about this great engineer. He improved the efficiency of A.C machines designed by Edison but was never rewarded with the sum of $50,000, which Edison promised to pay. After resigning from Edison machining works, this great engineer worked as a laborer by digging ditches and raised fund for his new projects.

MIT students have borrowed the idea of wireless power transmission from Nicola Tesla. They have even used the same technique, Tesla invented nearly hundred years ago. Same technique is already in use by RFID’s. Copying is not considered bad if you do that in new way. As Shakespeare said “Commit the oldest sins, the newest kind of ways.”

  Other possibilities

Power can also be transmitted wirelessly using many other techniques as well. For example laser or microwave beam can be used to transmit power from point to the other. But these radiations, particularly at such intense level, are dangerous for house hold use. Moreover, laser and microwave beam are directed and their energy can only be received by intercepting their paths. Laser radiation is also absorbed by the atmosphere leading to a less efficient solution. It was even devised to shoot down the planes of the enemy using the laser guns but the idea never caught on because most of the radiation was absorbed by the atmosphere during the tests. Thus laser guns will take some time to come out of the Star Trek series. Energy in the form of light is also promising. Thus this is how we have been receiving the energy from sun for millions of years. But light spreads in all directions and is subject to absorption. Thus we only receive fraction of radiated energy of the sun and a practical system based on this phenomenon will highly inefficient.

So what the team envisioned was something unusual. They agreed on using the magnetic field as carrier of energy. Magnetic energy transfer already occurs in transformers, but the primary and secondary coils quite close to each other. If they are taken apart, the energy transfer between them drops substantially. “Here is where the magic of the resonant coupling comes about. The usual non-resonant magnetic induction would be almost 1 million times less efficient in this particular system.”  As Karalis, a graduate student electrical engineering and computer science points out. So MIT students opted for coupling through magnetic resonance.


 Suppose you sit in a room and there are glasses filled up to different levels of water. You have a frequency generator that can generate any frequency by rotating its knob. The frequency is heard through a loud speaker. Let’s start with lowest frequency and slowly rotate the knob of the frequency generator to move towards a higher frequency. At some point, one the glasses will start to vibrate. If the sound level is high, they may break is well. What actually happens at this point is that the frequency of the sound outputted by the loud speaker matches the natural frequency of the glass. Natural frequency is the frequency at which the response of the glass structure is maximum. Thus the glass absorbs much of the energy of the outputted sound as compared to other glasses. If the frequency is changed, one of the other glasses may start vibration at some other point.

Thus it is established that resonance is an efficient way of energy transfer. Only the targeted systems receive and absorb the radiated energy. You may say “As its ok for sound energy, it may be applicable to other forms of energy”. You have guessed right then but late, otherwise your grandchildren would remember you as one of the pioneers of the wireless electricity.

Magnetic resonance

Same principle applies to magnetic energy when resonance is used. The system that is currently devised uses a pair of coils. The phenomenon of near field inductive coupling through magnetic fields is exploited. Far field power transfer occurs when transmitter and receiver are at large distance as in the case of radio transmission. In far field transmission, energy spreads in all directions. In this technique, the receiver is close to the transmitter. The transmitting coil does not transmit.


Wireless Electricity

Picture: wireless power transfer over two meter (7 feet) distance, from the coil on the left to the coil on the right, where it powers a 60W light bulb. Members of the team that performed the experiment are obstructing the direct line of sight between the coils; front row: peter fisher (left) and Robert Moffatt; second row: Marin Soljatic; third row: Andre Kurs (left) John Joannopoulos and Aristeids Karalis. Photo/Aristeids Karalis.


Electromagnetic energy in all directions (near field transmission). Instead a small space around its filled with a non-irradiative magnetic field oscillating at frequencies in megahertz. There is a strong coupling between transmitting coil and receiving coil. Thus energy is exchanged between two coils and feebly radiated to the environment. This the key property of this approach leads to efficient power transfer from one point to another. They have transmitted 60W of power through a distance of 7 feet with 40% efficiency. Two capacitively loaded copper coils, each with a diameter of 24 inches, resonating at 10MHz were used. They have properly named it WiTricity i.e. wireless electricity.

The current problem with the design is the limited power transfer capability. More power transfer requires bigger coils. But it’s not a big problem as current semiconductor devices have small power requirements. A coil comparable to the size of the laptop can be fitted within the body of the laptop. It will be sufficient to meet all power requirements of the laptop in a room. Distance is always the affecting factor. Greater is the distance, greater is the lost. Therefore people speculating about the use of solar panels on the moon, with this system transmitting power to earth to solve energy crisis, have to wait a bit.


Wireless Electricity

Design of the transmitting and receiving coils, consisting of curved inductor and capacitive plates.


Other issues

One of the major issues is that of health. We have seen some horrifying consequences of using cell phones. If you still use your cell phone to talk to someone (special) for hours, consider buying handsfree. Keep the phone away from your brain (even if it’s not precious to you). Same threats may be posed even of higher degrees by WiTricity because of high levels of power involved. MIT researchers have suggested that finally the power density involved will be below the threshold for FFC safety regulations. Moreover, WiTricity implements near field inductive coupling using magnetic fields which interact weakly with the surrounding objects including human body tissues. Since the effect of the electromagnetic field on living things is under study, nothing can be stated for sure by now. However, leukemia and cancer associated with exposure to high levels of electromagnetic radiations.


Wireless power transmission is inefficient as compared to conventional methods. Since modern world is energy hungry, this idea may not catch on for high levels of power transmission. Its target will generally include portable electronic devices, home sensors etc. more than hundred years have passed after this technique of wireless power transmission was suggested but we have not seen any practical example. Maybe this method of power transmission starts is action because of currently available advanced technology for application having small energy requirements.


Wireless Electricity

Wireless Energy transfer from space to Earth



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Introduction to Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAVs)

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)

An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), commonly known as a drone, is an aircraft without a human pilot aboard. UAVs are a component of an unmanned aircraft system (UAS) which include a UAV, a ground-based controller, and a system of communications between the two. The flight of UAVs may operate with various degrees of autonomy: either under remote control by a human operator or autonomously by onboard computers.

Compared to manned aircraft, UAVs were originally used for missions too “dull, dirty or dangerous” for humans. While they originated mostly in military applications, their use is rapidly expanding to commercial, scientific, recreational, agricultural, and other applications, such as policing, peacekeeping, and surveillance, product deliveries, aerial photography, agriculture, smuggling and drone racing. Civilian drones now vastly outnumber military drones, with estimates of over a million sold by 2015, so they can be seen as an early commercial application of Autonomous Things, to be followed by the autonomous car and home robots.


Multiple terms are used for unmanned aerial vehicles, which generally refer to the same concept.

The term drone, more widely used by the public, was coined in reference to the resemblance of the sound, of navigation and loud-and-regular motor of old military unmanned aircraft, to the male bee.

The term unmanned aircraft system (UAS) was adopted by the United States Department of Defense (DoD) and the United States Federal Aviation Administration in 2005 according to their Unmanned Aircraft System Roadmap 2005–2030. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and the British Civil Aviation Authority adopted this term, also used in the European Union’s Single-European-Sky (SES) Air-Traffic-Management (ATM) Research (SESAR Joint Undertaking) roadmap for 2020. This term emphasizes the importance of elements other than the aircraft. It includes elements such as ground control stations, data links and other support equipment. A similar term is an unmanned-aircraft vehicle system (UAVS) remotely piloted aerial vehicle (RPAV), remotely piloted aircraft system (RPAS). Many similar terms are in use.

A UAV is defined as a “powered, aerial vehicle that does not carry a human operator, uses aerodynamic forces to provide vehicle lift, can fly autonomously or be piloted remotely, can be expendable or recoverable, and can carry a lethal or nonlethal payload”. Therefore, missiles are not considered UAVs because the vehicle itself is a weapon that is not reused, though it is also unmanned and in some cases remotely guided.


UAVs typically fall into one of six functional categories :
Target and decoy – providing ground and aerial gunnery a target that simulates an enemy aircraft or missile
Reconnaissance – providing battlefield intelligence
Combat – providing attack capability for high-risk missions
Logistics – delivering cargo
Research and development – improve UAV technologies
Civil and commercial UAVs – agriculture, aerial photography, data collection

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)

UAV components

Manned and unmanned aircraft of the same type generally have recognizably similar physical components. The main exceptions are the cockpit and environmental control system or life support systems. Some UAVs carry payloads (such as a camera) that weigh considerably less than an adult human, and as a result can be considerably smaller. Though they carry heavy payloads, weaponized military drones are lighter than their manned counterparts with comparable armaments.

Small civilian UAVs have no life-critical systems, and can thus be built out of lighter but less sturdy materials and shapes, and can use less robustly tested electronic control systems. For small UAVs, the quadcopter design has become popular, though this layout is rarely used for manned aircraft. Miniaturization means that less-powerful propulsion technologies can be used that are not feasible for manned aircraft, such as small electric motors and batteries. (see above figure)

Control systems for UAVs are often different than manned craft. For remote human control, a camera and video link almost always replace the cockpit windows; radio-transmitted digital commands replace physical cockpit controls. Autopilot software is used on both manned and unmanned aircraft, with varying feature sets.

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)


The primary difference for planes is the absence of the cockpit area and its windows. Tailless Quadcopters are a common form factor for rotary wing UAVs while tailed mono- and bi-copters are common for manned platforms.

Power supply and platform

Small UAVs mostly use lithium-polymer batteries (Li-Po), while larger vehicles rely on conventional airplane engines. Battery elimination circuitry (BEC) is used to centralize power distribution and often harbors a microcontroller unit (MCU). Costlier switching BECs diminish heating on the platform.


UAV computing capability followed the advances of computing technology, beginning with analog controls and evolving into microcontrollers, then system-on-a-chip (SOC) and single-board computers (SBC). System hardware for small UAVs is often called the Flight Controller (FC), Flight Controller Board (FCB) or Autopilot.


Position and movement sensors give information about the aircraft state. Exteroceptive sensors deal with external information like distance measurements, while exproprioceptive ones correlate internal and external states. Non-cooperative sensors are able to detect targets autonomously so they are used for separation assurance and collision avoidance.

Degrees of freedom (DOF) refer to both the amount and quality of sensors on-board: 6 DOF implies 3-axis gyroscopes and accelerometers (a typical inertial measurement unit – IMU), 9 DOF refers to an IMU plus a compass, 10 DOF adds a barometer and 11 DOF usually adds a GPS receiver.


UAV actuators include digital electronic speed controllers (which control the RPM of the motors) linked to motors/engines and propellers, servomotors (for planes and helicopters mostly), weapons, payload actuators, LEDs and speakers.


UAV software called the flight stack or autopilot. UAVs are real-time systems that require rapid response to changing sensor data. Examples include Raspberry Pis, Beagleboards, etc. shielded with NavIO, PXFMini, etc. or designed from scratch such as Nuttx, preemptive-RT Linux, Xenomai, Orocos-Robot Operating System or DDS-ROS 2.0.
List of civil-use open-source stacks include:

• KKMultiCopter
• ArduCopter
• DroneCode (forked from ArduCopter)
• MultiWii
• BaseFlight (forked from MultiWii)
• CleanFlight (forked from BaseFlight)
• BetaFlight (forked from CleanFlight)
• RaceFlight (forked from CleanFlight)
• iNav (forked from CleanFlight)
• Paparazzi
• OpenPilot
• TauLabs (forked from OpenPilot)
• dRonin (forked from OpenPilot)
• LibrePilot (forked from OpenPilot)
• CrazyFlie

Loop principles

UAVs employ open-loop, closed-loop or hybrid control architectures.

Open loop—This type provides a positive control signal (faster, slower, left, right, up, down) without incorporating feedback from sensor data.

Closed loop – This type incorporates sensor feedback to adjust behavior (reduce speed to reflect tailwind, move to altitude 300 feet). The PID controller is common. Sometimes, feedforward is employed, transferring the need to close the loop further.

Flight controls

Flight control is one of the lower-layer system and is similar to manned aviation: plane flight dynamics, control and automation, helicopter flight dynamics and controls and multirotor flight dynamics were researched long before the rise of UAVs. Automatic flight involves multiple levels of priority.

UAVs can be programmed to perform aggressive manœuvres or landing/perching on inclined surfaces, and then to climb toward better communication spots. Some UAVs can control flight with varying flight modelisation, such as VTOL designs.

UAVs can also implement perching on a flat vertical surface.


Most UAVs use a radio frequency front-end that connects the antenna to the analog-to-digital converter and a flight computer that controls avionics (and that may be capable of autonomous or semi-autonomous operation). Radio allows remote control and exchange of video and other data. Early UAVs  had only uplink. Downlinks (e.g., realtime video) came later.

In military systems and high-end domestic applications, downlink may convey payload management status. In civilian applications, most transmissions are commands from operator to vehicle. Downstream is mainly video. Telemetry is another kind of downstream link, transmitting status about the aircraft systems to the remote operator. UAVs use also satellite “uplink” to access satellite navigation systems.

The radio signal from the operator side can be issued from either:

  • Ground control – a human operating a radio transmitter/receiver, a smartphone, a tablet, a computer, or the original meaning of a military ground control station (GCS). Recently control from wearable devices, human movement recognition, human brain waves  was also demonstrated.
  • Remote network system, such as satellite duplex data links for some military powers. Downstream digital video over mobile networks has also entered consumer markets, while direct UAV control uplink over the celullar mesh is under researched.
  • Another aircraft, serving as a relay or mobile control station – military manned-unmanned teaming (MUM-T).


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